T-6B EP's

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T-6B EP's
2013-01-28 15:25:39
T6 EPs

T-6B Emergency Procedures w/ notes (Navy)
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  1. Abort Start Procedure
    *1. PCL - OFF; or STARTER switch - AUTO/RESET

    • In the AUTO start mode, if a no start is detected or if a hung or hot start is projected, the PMU should terminate the start sequence. However, the engine start should be aborted manually in the following situations:
    • ● ITT rate of increase appears likely to exceed 1000°C (hot start)
    • ● Normal N1 increase is halted (hung start)
    • ● No rise of ITT is evident within 10 seconds after fuel flow indications (no start)
    • ● Red BATT BUS warning message illuminates during the start sequence
    • ● PCL is moved or the ST READY green advisory message extinguishes during the start sequence
  2. Emergency Engine Shutdown on the Ground
    • *1. PCL - OFF
    • *3. Emergency ground egress - As required

    In the event of an engine fire, prop strike, or chip light; if the aircraft appears likely to depart the prepared surface; or should any other serious ground emergency occur, accomplish the following:
  3. Emergency Ground Egress
    • *1. ISS mode selector - SOLO
    • *2. Seat safety pin - Install (BOTH)
    • *3. PARKING BRAKE - As required
    • *4. Canopy - Open
    • *5. CFS handle - Rotate and pull (BOTH)
    • *6. Upper fittings, lower fittings, and leg restraint garters - Release (BOTH)
    • *7. BAT, GEN, and AUX BAT switches - OFF
    • *8. Evacuate aircraft

    N: In a situation requiring immediate ground egress, the ejection system has the capability for 0/0 ejection.

    W: Failure to ensure that the ISS mode selector is set to SOLO may result in the inadvertent ejection of one or both seats.

    W: Failure to insert both ejection seat safety pins (if occupied) before ground egress may result in inadvertent activation of ejection sequence and subsequent injury or death when performing emergency ground egress.

    • W: ● If the canopy fracturing system malfunctions in conjunction with a canopy latch failure in the locked position, ejection may be the only option remaining to exit the aircraft. Aircrew shall ensure shoulder straps, lap straps, and leg restraint garters are still attached prior to pulling ejection handle.
    • ● To prevent injury, ensure oxygen mask is on and visor is down prior to actuating the CFS system.
    • ● Each internal CFS handle activates only the CFS charge for the respective transparency. Both internal CFS handles must be activated in order to fracture both transparencies (if required).

    N: Oxygen hose, emergency oxygen hose, communication leads, and anti-G suit hose will pull free while vacating cockpit and leg restraint lines will pull through leg restraint garter D rings if released with quick-release lever.
  4. Abort
    • *1. PCL - IDLE

    If it becomes necessary to abort the takeoff, concentrate on maintaining aircraft control, specifically directional control, while stopping the aircraft on the remaining runway.

    W: After a stop which required maximum effort braking and if overheated brakes are suspected, do not taxi into or park in a congested area until brakes have had sufficient time to cool. Do not set parking brake.
  5. Engine Failure Immediately After Takeoff (Sufficient Runway Remaining Straight Ahead)
    • *1. AIRSPEED - 110 KNOTS (MINIMUM)
    • *2. PCL - AS REQUIRED
    • *4. Flaps - As required

    • W: ● If insufficient runway remains to land straight ahead, consider immediate ejection.
    • ● Do not sacrifice aircraft control while troubleshooting or lowering gear with emergency system.

    N: The pilot should select IDLE to use the increased drag of the not yet feathered propeller or select OFF to reduce the sink rate.
  6. Engine Failure During Flight
    • *1. ZOOM/GLIDE - 125 KNOTS (MINIMUM)
    • *2. PCL - OFF
    • *4. Airstart - Attempt if warranted
    • *5. FIREWALL SHUTOFF handle - Pull
    • *6. Execute Forced Landing or Eject

    Initial indications of engine failure/ flameout are: loss of power and airspeed; rapid decay in N1, torque, and ITT; and propeller movement towards feather due to loss of oil pressure. Depending on airspeed, N1 will indicate 0% within approximately 5 seconds, even though the gas generator core may not have seized. N1 does not indicate speeds below 8%. Torque will be indicating 0%. As the propeller moves towards feather, it may still be turning (windmilling), but at a reduced RPM. Secondary indications include rapidly decreasing ITT and lower-than-normal oil pressure. The GEN, FUEL PX, and OIL PX warning will illuminate, followed by the OBOGS FAIL warning. The PMU FAIL and CKPT PX warning may illuminate.
  7. Immediate Airstart (PMU NORM)
    • *1. PCL - OFF
    • *3. PCL - IDLE, ABOVE 13% N1
    • *4. Engine instruments - Monitor ITT, N1, and oil pressure
    • *5. PCL - OFF
    • *6. FIREWALL SHUTOFF handle - Pull
    • *7. Execute Forced Landing or Eject
    • *8. PCL - As required after N1 reaches IDLE RPM  (approximately 67% N1)
    • *9. PEL - Execute

    The Immediate Airstart (PMU NORM) procedure should be used following engine failure at low altitude when thrust requirements are critical, or when time and conditions do not permit completing a full airstart procedure.

    Monitor ITT, N1, fuel flow, and other engine indications. Typically, in excess of 1200 feet will be lost for each attempt. The propeller will unfeather and accelerate to operating RPM approximately 20 seconds after N1 reaches 45%. Useful power will be available after 40 seconds from starter engagement.

    W: Airstart attempts outside of the airstart envelope may be unsuccessful or result in engine overtemperature. Consideration should be given to ensure airstarts are attempted within the airstart envelope (125-200KIAS for sea level to 15,000 feet, or 135-200KIAS for 15,001 to 20,000 feet).

    • W: ● Do not delay ejection while attempting airstart at low altitude if below 2000 feet AGL.
    • ● PCL must be in OFF to feather the propeller, and ensure proper starter, ignition, boost pump, and PMU operation during airstart.
  8. Uncommanded Power Changes/ Loss of Power/ Uncommanded Propeller Feather
    • *1. PCL - MID RANGE
    • *2. PMU SWITCH - OFF
    • *3. PROP SYS CIRCUIT BREAKER (left front console) - PULL, IF Np STABLE BELOW 40%
    • *4. PCL - As required
    • *5. PEL - Execute
    • *6. PROP SYS circuit breaker - Reset, as required
    • *7. PCL - OFF
    • *8. FIREWALL SHUTOFF handle - Pull
    • *9. Execute Forced Landing or Eject

    W: If rate of descent (indicated on the VSI while stabilized at 125 KIAS with gear, flaps, and speed brake retracted and 4 to 6% torque) is greater than 1500 ft/min, increase torque as necessary (up to 131%) to achieve approximately 1350 to 500 ft/min rate of descent. If engine power is insufficient to produce a rate of descent less than 1500 ft/min, set PCL to OFF.

    If loss of thrust is the result of uncommanded propeller feather and the engine remains within operational limits (ITT and torque), it is possible for the propeller to eventually unfeather and restore useful power. An operating engine will provide power to accessories functions such as OBOGS, DEFOG, pressurization, and hydraulic equipment. Consider leaving the engine running while monitoring descent rate.
  9. Compressor Stalls
    • *1. PCL - Slowly retard below stall threshold
    • *2. DEFOG switch - ON
    • *3. PCL - Slowly advance (as required)
    • *4. PEL - Execute
    • *5. PCL - OFF
    • *6. FIREWALL SHUTOFF handle - Pull
    • *7. Execute Forced Landing or Eject

    Compressor stalls may be initially identified by abnormal engine noise, increasing ITT, and decreasing N1 and torque, possibly followed by fluctuations in these indications. Audible indications, which may include loud bangs, backfires, or engine sputtering, represent a major difference between a stall and an uncommanded power change/ loss of power/ uncommanded propeller feather, and may aid in diagnosing the malfunction. Flames and/or smoke may also be visible from the exhaust stacks. Compressor stalls may be caused by damaged or degraded compressor/ turbine blades, disrupted airflow into the engine, or compressor bleed valve malfunctions and therefore may occur during either engine acceleration or deceleration. Severe compressor stalls may cause engine damage and/or flameout.
  10. Inadvertent Departure From Controlled Flight
    • *1. PCL - IDLE
    • *3. ALTITUDE - CHECK
    • *4. Recover from unusual attitude

    C: Power-on and inverted departures or spins will result in high loads on the engine and torque shaft. If an inverted or power-on departure is encountered, land as soon as conditions permit. The pilot should suspect possible engine damage and may experience unusual engine operation accompanied by low oil pressure or CHIP detector warning. In all cases of inverted or power-on departures, the engine shall be inspected by qualified maintenance personnel after flight.
  11. Fire In Flight
    • *1. PCL - OFF
    • *3. Forced Landing - Execute
    • *4. Eject (BOTH)
    • *5. PEL - Execute

    Illumination of the FIRE annunciator indicates the possibility of fire in the engine compartment. Pending confirmation of an engine fire, initiate PEL procedures with the intention of landing as soon as possible.

    W: Illumination of the fire warning light accompanied by one or more of the following indications is confirmation of an engine fire: smoke; flames; engine vibration; unusual sounds; high ITT; and fluctuating oil pressure, oil temperature, or hydraulic pressure.

    • W: ● A fire warning light with no accompanying indication is not a confirmed fire. Do not shut down an engine for an unconfirmed fire.
    • ● High engine compartment temperatures resulting from a bleed air leak may cause illumination of the fire warning light. Reducing the PCL setting towards IDLE will decrease the amount of bleed air and possibly extinguish the fire warning light; however, advancing the PCL might be required to intercept the ELP. Regardless of reducing or advancing the PCL, continue to investigate for indications confirming an engine fire.
    • ● If the fire cannot be confirmed, the fire warning system may be at fault and should be tested as conditions permit. If only one fire loop annunciator is illuminated (top or bottom half only), a false fire indication may exist if the other loop tests good.
  12. Chip Detector Warning
    • *1. PCL - Minimum necessary to intercept ELP; avoid unnecessary PCL movements
    • *2. PEL - Execute

    Illumination of the CHIP warning indicates possible metal contamination in the engine oil supply. If the contamination is severe, the engine may fail with little or no further warning.

    C: Higher power settings may aggravate the existing condition.
  13. Oil System Malfunction or Low Oil Pressure
    • *1. Terminate maneuver
    • *2. Check oil pressure; if oil pressure is normal, continue operations
    • *3. PCL - Minimum necessary to intercept ELP; avoid unnecessary PCL movements
    • *4. PEL - Execute

    • N: ● Use this procedure for any of the following: red OIL PX warning illuminated, amber OIL PX caution illuminated, oil pressure fluctuations, or oil temperature out of limits.
    • ● If OIL PX warning illuminates and oil pressure indicates <5psi, check OIL TRX circuit breaker on the battery bus circuit breaker panel (left front console). If the circuit breaker is open, it may be reset.
    • ● Due to the sensitivity of the signal conditioning unit, a single, momentary illumination of the amber OIL PX caution while maneuvering is possible but may not indicate a malfunction.
    • ● Illumination of both red and amber OIL PX message while the oil pressure gage indicates normal pressure indicates an SCU failure.
  14. Low Fuel Pressure
    • *1. PEL - Execute
    •   2. Boost Pump - ON

    If engine fuel feed pressure drops below 10 psi, and the boost pump fails to engage automatically, the FUEL PX warning will illuminate. If engine fuel feed pressure is fluctuating at or below 10 psi, the boost pump will alternately cycle on and off, illuminating and extinguishing the BOOST PUMP advisory. These low pressure conditions may be caused by a blocked fuel line, low pressure pump failure, fuel leak, low pressure switch failure, or failure of the oil scavenge pump.

    N: If the FUEL PX warning remains illuminated, the engine-driven high pressure fuel pump is suction feeding. Engine operation with high pressure pump suction feeding is limited to 10 hours.

    C: Unless a greater emergency exists, do not reset BOOST PUMP circuit breaker (left front console) if open.
  15. OBOGS System Malfunction
    *1. PCL - Advance

    If the engine has failed or has been shutdown, refer to OBOGS Inoperative procedures. Illumination of the OBOGS FAIL warning indicates the OBOGS system is no longer producing sufficient oxygen concentration or pressure. This condition may indicate a failure of the OBOGS heat exchanger, concentrator, bleed air supply, electrical system interface, or excessive system leakage. Failure of the OBOGS system may be accompanied by reduced pressure and/or quantity of breathing gas and may result in hypoxia symptoms if corrective action is not taken immediately.

    W: If the battery fails, OBOGS will be inoperative.

    N: The OBOGS FAIL warning will illuminate if both supply levers are set to OFF with the engine running.
  16. OBOGS Inoperative

    If the OBOGS system is determined to be inoperative due to engine failure or engine shutdown, or OBOGS System Malfunction procedures do not resolve the malfunction.

    • W: ● If hypoxia is experienced or suspected, land as soon as possible.
    • ● Anytime cabin pressure exceeds 10,000 feet and either OBOGS and/or cabin pressure is lost, an emergency descent to a cabin altitude of 10,000 feet or below must be accomplished. Use of emergency oxygen is required when OBOGS is lost and cabin pressure exceeds 10,000 feet pressure equivalent. Once emergency oxygen is activated, descent to aircraft altitudes at or below 10,000 feet MSL is essential within 10 minutes of activation of emergency oxygen.
    • ● If the battery fails, OBOGS will be inoperative.
  17. Eject

    • W: ● To avoid injury, grasp handle and pull sharply toward abdomen, keeping elbows against the body.
    • ● The emergency escape system incorporates an explosive canopy fracturing system. The force of detonation blows numerous shards and small fragments outward from the canopy and into the cockpit. Some metallic fragments may be extremely hot and may cause burns upon contact with the skin. Aircrew should ensure exposed skin is covered, the oxygen mask is on, and visor is down prior to ejection or actuating the CFS system to prevent injury from shards and hot fragments.
    • ● When ejecting over mountainous terrain exceeding 8,000 feet MSL, the manual override (MOR) handle should be used to manually separate from the seat and deploy the parachute.

    N: If ejecting at low speed, one or both sets of risers may remain velcroed together following seat separation. This may create a slight increase in descent rate and/or an uncommanded turn. Manually separate the risers if time permits. The steering lines (toggles) are located on the backside of each of the front risers. To counter any uncommanded turns, unstow the opposite steering line or use risers for controllability.
  18. Forced Landing
    • *1. Airspeed - 125 KIAS prior to extending landing gear
    • *2. EMER LDG GR handle - Pull (as required)
    • *3. Airspeed - 120 KIAS minimum until intercepting final; 110 KIAS minimum on final
    • *4. Flaps - As required

    • W: ● Landing distance will increase with the propeller feathered.
    • ● Landing on an unprepared surface may cause structural damage making it impossible to open the canopy or fracture it using the CFS.

    W: Engine failure or shutdown will completely disable the bleed air system. Depending on environmental conditions, this may cause significant canopy icing and/or fogging, and severely hamper visibility, especially from the rear cockpit.

    • C: ● Ejection is recommended if a suitable landing area is not available. If circumstances dictate an emergency landing and ejection is not possible or the ejection system malfunctions, the pilot may perform an ELP to an unprepared surface or ditch the aircraft. The aircraft structure can survive either type of forced landing; however, the risk of injury increases significantly due to crash loads and the complexity of ground or water egress.
    • ● Inducing yaw (side slipping) with a known engine/oil malfunction could result in impaired windshield visibility due to oil leakage spraying onto the windshield.

    W: If landing on an unprepared surface or ditching, do not extend the landing gear. Flaps will not be available without emergency gear extension.
  19. Precautionary Emergency Landing (PEL)
    • *1. Turn to nearest suitable field
    • *2. Climb or accelerate to intercept ELP
    • *3. Gear, flaps, speed brake - UP

    • W: ● Once on profile, if engine is vibrating excessively, or if indications of failure are imminent, set PCL to OFF.
    • ● If PEL is being performed with IDLE power, add 500 feet to high, low, and base key altitudes to compensate for drag of unfeathered propeller.
    • ● Engine failure or shutdown will completely disable the bleed air system. Depending on environmental conditions, this may cause significant canopy icing and/or fogging, severely hampering visibility, especially from the rear cockpit.
  20. Post Ejection Procedures
    • 1. Inspect canopy – Carefully inspect canopy and suspension lines for damage and/or malfunctions
    • 2. (I) Inflate LPU – Locate toggles and pull down to wab. 
    • 3. (R) Release raft
    • 4. (O) Options – As required
    • N: The following options may be performed if time permits and in any order.
    • a. LeMoinge slots – Locate toggles on front risers. Pull down on toggles to turn chute into the wind prior to landing (left toggle, left turn; right toggle, right turn).
    • b. Visor – If descending over water,
    • raise visor for increased visibility. If descending over land, leave visor down for increased face and eye protection.
    • c. Oxygen mask – If descending over water, remove oxygen mask from face and discard. If descending over land, loosen bayonet fittings and retain oxygen mask for increased face protection.
    • d. Gloves – If descending over water, gloves may be removed for better dexterity; if removed, retain and
    • stow. If descending over land, keep gloves on for increased hand protection.
    • e. Seat Survival Kit (SSK) – If descending over water, do not discard SSK (release both lap straps). If descending over land, discard SSK only during daylight conditions and over open terrain; do not pull SSK manual release handle.
    • 5. (K) Konnectors  – Locate canopy release upper KOCH fittings
    • 6. Preparing to land procedures – Prepare for landing at a high enough altitude (approximately 200 feet) to accomplish the following:
    • a. If over land – Discard SSK (release both lap straps)
    • b. Locate clear landing area and steer into wind
    • c. Grab rear risers at retainer loops with elbows pointed forward, (toggles) at eye level, with head erect, and eyes on the horizon
    • d. Ensure feet and knees are together, knees are slightly bent, and balls of feet are lower than heels

    • 7. Landing/ post-landing procedures – Over land
    • a. Perform parachute landing fall (PLF) – Five points of contact:
    • (1) Balls of feet
    • (2) Side of calf
    • (3) Side of thigh
    • (4) Side of buttocks
    • (5) Shoulder blade
    • b. Release upper KOCH fittings after completion of PLF

    • 8. Landing/ post-landing procedures – Over water
    • a. Release upper KOCH fittings as soon as feet touch the water and perform ADR (post-water entry):
    • (1) (A) Avoid the chute
    • (2) (D) Disentangle the chute
    • (3) (R) Release SSK and retrieve survival items

    • W: ● Pulling the SSK manual release handle lowers the SSK on a 12-foot lowering line below the crewmember and is not recommended. The SSK may become entangled in trees or powerlines during descent over land or in parachute shroud lines during water entry, and may interfere with parachute avoidance techniques or become lost after disconnecting from parachute in the water.
    • ● An increased risk of severe injury or death during parachute landing fall (PLF) exists with surface winds exceeding 25 knots. High surface winds contribute to parachute landing velocity. When time permits, select parachute steering and turn into the wind to reduce landing velocity. Also, locate parachute release fittings and prepare to release chute after PLF to prevent dragging injuries.
    • N: If decision is made to discard SSK (release both lap straps), waiting until near the ground reduces the risk of losing survival equipment.