Ethics 220-5H-2

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Ethics 220-5H-2
2013-02-24 18:47:40
Ethics 220 5H

Vocabulary #2
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  1. 1. classical feminism
    1.  The feminist view that women and man ought to be considered persons first and gendered beings second is called ________.  Gender differences are due to “nature” not “nurture.”
  2. 2. difference feminism.
    2.  The feminist view that men and women are fundamentally different, morally and psychologically due to human nature is called ______________
  3. 3.  Distributive justice
    3.  _______________refers to the fair distribution of societies goods among society’s members.
  4. 4. Retributive justice
    4.  ____________ refers to the practice of punishing those who break society’s laws.
  5. 5.  Communitative justice
    5.  __________refers to the practice of justice being lived within the acts of a particular community.
  6. 6. Equity feminism
    6. ____________ is the view that the battle for equality has been won and that further insistence on women’s inequality will only serve to make women into victims.
  7. 7. inalienable
    7.  To say that human rights are __________ means that those rights cannot be taken or given away
  8. 8. instrumental value
    8.  To say that something is of ______________ means that it is of value because of what further value it might bring.
  9. 9. intrinsic value
    9.  To say that something is of ____________ means that it has value in and of itself, not with regard to a value that it might bring.
  10. 10. natural rights.
    10.  The assumption that people are born with certain inalienable rights is called ____________.
  11. 11. Negative rights
    11.  Rights that are not to be interfered with (usually including right to life, liberty and property) are called negative rights. ___________ are also called first generation rights because they were the original rights included in the earliest human rights manifestos.
  12. 12. patriarchy.
    12.  A society where men rule or have a disproportionate influence is called ____________.
  13. 13. pleasure principle
    13.  Freud’s term for the oldest layer of our mind is ___________, which caters to our own pleasure.
  14. 14.  Positive rights
    14.  _____________, which are also called second generation rights, are rights of entitlement where it is said that each person is entitled to the basics of human survival such as food, shelter, and clothing.  These rights are to be protected by the state.
  15. 15.  Radical feminism
    15. ______________ is the belief that the root cause of men’s domination of and discrimination against women must be analyzed.
  16. 16. Restorative justice
    16.  The rehabilitation of criminals and the restitution of victims is known as ____________.
  17. 17. act utilitarianism
    17. The classical version of utilitarianism that focuses on the consequences of a single act is called __________.
  18. 18. categorical imperative
    18.  The ______________ in Kant’s ethics is the unconditional moral principle that one's behavior should accord with universalizable maxims which respect persons as ends in themselves; the obligation to do one's duty for its own sake and not in pursuit of further ends.
  19. 19. hypothetical imperative.
    • 19.  In the ethical system of
    • Immanuel Kant, a moral command that is conditional on personal motive or desire and is concerned with means and ends rather than with duty for its own sake is called ____________________.
  20. 20. consequentialism
    20.  A theory that focuses exclusively on the consequences of an action is called ____________.
  21. 21. Cultural diversity
    21.  ____________ is the recognition of a variety of ethnic and racial groups within a given region.
  22. 22. cultural imperialism
    22.  A critical term that is used to describe the attitude of imposing one’s cultural accomplishments and moral convictions on other cultures is _______________.
  23. 23. cultural relativism
    23.  A theory of ethics suggesting that difference societies or cultures have different moral codes is called ______________.
  24. 24.  Deontology
    24. ____________ is an ethical theory that disregards the importance of consequences and focuses only on the rightness or wrongness of the act itself.  Based on Kant’s ethics.
  25. 25. end in oneself.
    25.  One of Kant’s favorite terms to argue that all rational beings have ends which they seek and therefore should never be reduced to mere means to an end, was _____________. 
  26. 26. ends justify the means
    26.  The _____________ is a central tenet of Consequentialists who suggest that only the consequences (ends) count, not how the ends are brought about (means).
  27. 27. ethical relativism.
    27.  A normative theory of ethics that contends that there is no universal moral code and that whatever the majority of any given society or culture considers morally right is morally right for that culture is called ____________.
  28. 28. harm principle
    28.  John Stuart Mill’s ____________ represents the idea that one should not interfere with other people’s lives unless those people are doing harm to others.
  29. 29. hedonistic calculus
    29.  Bentham’s ___________ is a pros and cons system where pleasures are added and pains subtracted to find the most utilitarian course of action.
  30. 30. Kingdom of ends
    30. ______________ was Kant’s term for a society of autonomous lawmakers who all use the categorical imperative and show respect to one another as ends in themselves.
  31. 31.  Rule utilitarianism
    31. _____________ focuses on the consequences of a type of actions done repeatedly and not just a single act.
  32. 32.  Universal law
    32.  ______________for Kant is a moral rule that can be imagined as applying to everybody in the same situation and accepted by other rational beings.
  33. 33. universalization
    33.  The process by which a person asks oneself whether one’s maxim could become a universal law by asking the question: “What if everybody did this?” is called ___________.
  34. 34.  Utilitarianism
    34.  ____________is the theory that you ought to choose the act that maximizes the happiness and minimizes the unhappiness of the greatest number of people.
  35. 35. utility
    35.  An act or things’ _______ is its fitness for creating happiness and minimizing unhappiness.
  36. 36. varied pleasures
    • 36.  John Stuart Mills talked about _______________ in terms of
    • there being higher (wine and the opera) and lower (beer and Monday Night Football) pleasures.  He believed that people always prefer the higher pleasures.
  37. 37.  Consequentialism
    37.  ____________ is a great inclusive theory in principle, because it believes that all people’s interests and needs have to be counted equally.  This principle is called the equal consideration of interests.
  38. 38. Principles
    38. __________ in Kant’s ethics are laws that you apply to yourself.  You choose, like a self-government, what laws to follow and then follow them.  That is what it means in Kant’s ethics to be a person of _______.
  39. 39.  The universality
    39.  ___________ of human rights simply states that human rights are the property of all members of the human race without exception.
  40. 40. direct moral consideration
    • 40.  Moral consideration for a being’s own sake, rather than because of its relationship to others is called
    • ________________________.
  41. 41.  The doctrine of double
    ________________ effect is the principle that performing a good action may be permissible even if it has bad effects, but performing a bad action for the purpose of achieving good effects is never permissible; any bad effects must be unintended.
  42. 42.  The greatest happiness principle
    _______________________, according to Mill, is the principle that holds that actions are right in proportion to the degree they promote happiness and wrong to the degree that they promote the reverse of happiness.
  43. 43. imperfect duty.
    43.  According to Kant, a duty that has exceptions is called an _____________
  44. 44. indirect moral consideration.
    44.  Moral consideration based on a person’s relationship to others is called _____________.
  45. 45. perfect duty.
    45.  According to Kant a duty that has no exceptions is called a _________.
  46. 46. moral legalism
    46.  The view that a community’s basic moral standards should be enshrined in law and enforced by the state is called ________.
  47. 47. autonomy
    47.  According to Kant ______ is a state achieved by those who are self-governing, autonomous lawmakers who utilize the categorical imperative without regard for personal interest.
  48. 48. good will
    48.  For Kant, having _______ means having good intentions in terms of respecting a moral law that is rational and deserves to be universal law.
  49. 49.  Enfranchisement
    ___________ refers to having rights and thus political power.
  50. 50.  Disenfranchisement
    ________________ refers to not have rights and thus not having political power.
  51. 51.  Acculturation
    ___________ is the modification of a culture by using or adopting traits of another culture.
  52. 52. Fatalism
    _________ is the belief that our lives are determined by a higher power and that we cannot through the exercising of our wills change our destiny.
  53. 53. Mores
    53.  The moral customs and rules of a culture are called its _____.
  54. 54. slave morality
    54.  Nietzsche’s concept of the morality of the herd, called ______ ____, is where people resent strong individuals and claim that meekness is a virtue.
  55. 55.  Absurdity
    ________ is the existentialist concept that life is meaningless because there is no God to determine right and wrong (or because we can't know what God's values are, if God happens to exist).
  56. 56. authenticity
    56.  Being true to yourself or having personal integrity is called _______.
  57. 57. leap of faith
    57.  Kierkegaard's concept of the necessary step from the ethical to the religious stage is called a _________. It involves throwing yourself at the mercy of God and discarding all messages from your rational mind or your rational mind or your self-interested emotions.
  58. 58. master morality
    58.  Nietsche's view of the morality of strong individuals in ancient times, called __________,  includes respect for the enemy, loyalty to friends and kin, and scorn for weaker individuals.
  59. 59. Overman (Superman)
    59.  Nietsche’s view of master morality leads to the concept of the ____________, the strong individual who has gone beyond the moral rules and sets his own standards of good and evil.
  60. 60. Libertarianism
    _________ is (1) a theory of government that holds the individual has a right to life, liberty, and property; that nobody should interfere with these rights (negative rights); and that the government's role should be  restricted to protecting these right. (2) A theory that humans have free will independent of mechanistic causality.