BIO 116 Ch. 2

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BIO 116 Ch. 2
2013-01-09 01:00:40

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  1. Why are deaths from contagious diseases rare?
  2. Epidemic:
    geographically localized infections or outbreaks of disease
  3. Epidemiology:
    study of such outbreaks is called
  4. Pathogens:
    microorganisms, viruses, multicellular parasites (like tapeworms) and proteins that can cause disease
  5. What are epidemics influenced by?
    • 1) Total # of hosts (people)
    • 2) Birth Rate
    • 3) Rate of entry of uninfected, but susceptible people into the population (by immigration)
    • 4) Total # of uninfected, susceptible hosts
    • 5) Rate of transmission
    • 6) Death rate of infected pool
    • 7) Total # who become immune and survive
  6. Transmission rate factors-
    • pathogen efficiency
    • rate of encounters between the infected and uninfected
  7. What does pathogen efficiency depend on?
    the route of entry into the host (there may be more than one) and the ability to cause infection once inside the body 
  8. What can rate of encounter be influenced by?
    • population density
    • individual behavior (like using a condom or not)
    • population behaviors (amount of medical care available)
  9. Acute disease:
    when symptoms develop rapidly and infection spreads quickly resulting in immunity(clearing of the pathogen) or death of the host
  10. Endemic:
    some small percentage of the population is continuously newly infected
  11. Chronic infection:
    pathogen persistently remains within the host, and there are usually either mild or no symptoms
  12. Do chronic patients often develop immunity?  Why?
    Not usually... because they don't really get rid of it from their system
  13. antibiotics:
    they kill microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, protozoans) AKA living things
  14. Can antibiotics kill viruses and proteins?  Why?
    NO because viruses and proteins are not living things
  15. Vaccine:
    a mutated or dead (inactive) virus/bacteria that is fucking injected into the bloodstream so the fucking immune system can fucking learn it and kill it faster when the actual fucking disease hits you
  16. In old times, what was the thought about people with AIDS?
    they deserved to have AIDS because it's a punishment to them
  17. What is the most famous epidemic in the New World?
    When Cortez came and killed many Aztecs when he brought smallpox with him
  18. Why is influenza (the flu) hard to stop?
    because it mutates a lot and the things your immune system used to recognize are changed
  19. Is syphilis cause by bacteria or virus?
  20. When was the cure developed for syphilis?
  21. Is syphilis chronic or acute?
    chronic; might not see symptoms for many years, but can cause death if not treated
  22. How was syphilis originally dealt with?
    prostitutes were quarantined or jailed, infected soldiers were dishonorably discharged; abstinence was encouraged and sex before marriage was discouraged
  23. Were condoms distributed during the syphilis epidemic?
    NO because of fear of supporting extramarital sex
  24. What was the better and newer approach to the syphilis?
    free confidential testing and treatment AND national educational campaign that syphilis is transmitted through sexual contact
  25. What epidemic in history is most like our current HIV pandemic?
  26. Robert Koch's stuff on diseases:
    • The organism must always be found in diseased individuals
    • The organism, once obtained from the diseased person, must be able to be grown in pure culture
    • The disease is reproduced when organisms from the pure culture are introduced into a new host (human or appropriate animal)
    • The organism can then be re-isolated from the newly diseased host
  27. What did Robert Koch's postulates do for medieval times? 
    allowed a causation relationship to be established and potential pandemics to be stopped quickly