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What are the five primary inputs to the planning process? [etm ch4]
- knowledge of goals and objectives (content standards)
- knowledge of learner charactaristics
- knowledge of subject matter
- knowledge of teaching methods
- Tacit knowledge aquired from day to day experience and feedback
What are the teaching methods, referred to in the five primary inputs to planning? [etm ch4]
- The pace that I introduce new material
- Mode of presentation - direct vs. group discussion
- Class arrangement (small groups, full class, independent study)
- Classroom management (raise hand, speak out)
What is tacit knowledge? [etm ch4]
The teacher's reflection on what works in the classroom
What is reflective practice? [etm ch1]
Teaching that is inspired by the tacit or personal knowledge gained from day to day experience
How much time do research findings suggest students spend on tasks related to material comprehension (ex: seat work, practice etc)? [etm ch1]
60-70% up from about 50% average
What are the five "key behaviors" that show promising relationships to desirable student performance based on 3 decades of research by about 20 researchers findings? [etm ch1]
- lesson clarity
- instructional variety - ask questions!
- teacher task orientation
- engagement in the learning process
- student success rate
What are the second five "helping behavior"? [etm ch4]
- using student ideas and contributions
- teacher affect - enthusiasm!
Constructivists believe learning is made up of? [etm ch4]
- prior experience
What is SES? [etm ch1]
- A measure of prestige within a social group that is most often based on (parents) income and education
- It is a measure of income and education, but never race or ethnicity, SES cuts across all races, there are rich blacks and poor whites
- Title I schools provide government assistance
- lower ses schools have more students on free and reduced lunch program
What are process questions? [etm ch1]
- Content that is a means of achieving higher order goals
- Questions that are indirect, divergent, open, concept
What are the content questions? [etm ch1]
Questions are one of the following: direct, lower order, convergent, closed , fact
What is structuring? [etm ch1, p18]
Organizing what is to come, or summarizing what has gone before
What is teacher mediated dialogue? [etm ch1]
The teacher helps learners restructure what is being learned using their own ideas, experiences, etc.
What is the INTASC? [etm ch1]
The inter-state new teacher assessment and support consortium (10 principles/standards)
What is the NBPTS? [etm ch1]
The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards
What stages do beginner teachers go through? [etm ch1]
- Focus on behavior, before lesson planning, before instruction
- (Self, task, Impact)
- Fuller (1969) Concern Theory: a teacher can move back and forth between the stages.
What are state standards and curriculum guides?
They clearly specify the content that must be covered and in what period of time
What is Unit planning? [etm ch4, p118]
Establishing relationships/connections with lesson plans to achieve a higher level cognitive outcome
What is vertical unit planning [etm ch4, p119]?
Unit planning in which the units are arranged hierarchically to ensure prior knowledge (structuring)
What is lateral planning [etm ch4, p119]?
Planning units that integrate bodies of knowledge across disciplines or content areas.
What does visualizing your lesson plan mean [etm ch4, p121]?
Placing your unit/lesson planning in graphical form in order to clarify the order of prior knowledge presentation, and to see lessons in context with other lessons that share the same focus.
What is an interdisciplinary unit plan? [etm ch4, p123]
A laterally planned unit of study across multiple subject areas that focuses on a specific theme.
What are thematic units/integrated thematic teaching [etm ch4, p125]?
- Organizing units of study around central themes
- Having the students identify content themes across multiple subjects
- The highest level would be to have students address worldly problems or dilemmas across disciplines.
The complexity with which a lesson can begin depends on...[etm ch4, p130]?
The learning outcome of the lessons that preceded it.
What is task-ability grouping [etm ch4, p130]?
- Group my class for a specific period of time by the skills required to learn the material I am presenting.
- Ex: higher performing readers can read ahead, while teacher directs the lesson to average-lower performing readers.
- Ex: divide lesson plans, objectives, tests into two or more appropriate parts, when students exhibit noticeable strengths and weaknesses.
What is the best way to get students attention and minimize distractions? [etm ch4, p139]
- Arouse curiosity! Ask questions, or openers! amuse, stimulate, and bewilder
- "Have you ever wondered how we got the word horsepower?"
- "Have you ever wondered how some creatures can live both in the water and on the land?"
What are the 7 events of instruction [etm ch4, p135-140]?
- Gaining attention
- Inform learners of the objective
- Recall/Stimulate previous learning
- Present Content Authentically, that is make it relevant to current events or past events for example
- Check for understanding/guided practice (worksheets,etc.
- Feedback and Closure - students think and struggle with the material, then teacher provides answers.
- Assessment of learning outcomes - test, homework, research paper
What are Constructivist approaches to the subjects? [etm ch8, p260-261]?
- Reading - explore the text for meaning
- Writing - communication
- Math - problem solving
- Social Studies - blending multiple themes such as democratic ideal, global, economic development, citizenship.
What are integrated bodies of knowledge, a goal of constructivist teaching [etm ch8, p262]?
Integrated units and lessons that stress the connections between ideas and the logical coherence of interrelated topics, usually in the form of interdisciplinary or thematic units of instruction.
What is the indirect model of instruction [etm ch8, p262]?
- Students take presented material and are able to go beyond the information given and make conclusions and generalizations or find patterns of relationships.
- best used for concept learning, inquiry learning, and problem-centered learning
What is direct instruction [etm ch8, p262]?
- The rote memorization of facts, rules, examples, and sequences for memory and recall
- Teaching approach that emphasizes teacher control of most classroom events and the presentation of structured lessons. Active teaching, clear lesson organization, step-by-step progression between subtopics
Students use ___________ and ____________ to to classify different stimuli into the same category [etm ch8, p264]?
- Generalization - two different things in the same group
- Discrimination - the items in the same group are different
- Ex: A dog and cat are animals, A dog is a dog, and a cat is a cat.
As lesson and unit goals move up the hierarchy, the teacher must move from ______ to ______ model of instruction. [etm ch8, p264]?
a direct, an indirect
How are advance organizers helpful [etm ch8, p267]?
- They give learners a conceptual preview of what is to come, and helps store and label content
- Like a road map
- Like a treelike structure with main limbs that act as pegs, or place holders, for the branches that are yet to come
- Proven especially useful for diverse cultures and for English-language learners
- Concepts are woven into the lesson fabric to provide an overview of the day’s work and all topics to which it will subsequently relate
What is a a five-step model for implementing an inquiry-based lesson or unit [etm ch8, p267]?
Ask, Investigate, Create, Discuss, and Reflect
What is induction/inductive reasoning? [etm ch8, p275]?
- bottom up thinking
- a form of reasoning used to draw a conclusion or make a generalization from specific instances. It is a process in which students observe specific facts and then generalize them to other circumstances. Much of our everyday thinking proceeds in this manner:
- We notice that rain-slick roads are causing accidents on the way to school, so we reduce our speed at all subsequent intersections.
- Get a low grade on a test, so study harder for the next one
What is deduction/deductive reasoning [etm ch8, p276]?
- top down thinking, like focusing a camera, fine tuning concepts
- reasoning that proceeds from principles or generalizations to their application in specific instances. Deductive thinking includes testing generalizations to see if they hold in specific cases. Typically, a laboratory experiment in the sciences follows the deductive method. In these fields, the experimenter begins with a theory or hypothesis about what should happen and then tests it with an experiment to see if it can be confirmed
- We believe rain-slick roads are the prime contributor to traffic accidents at intersections. We make observations one rainy morning on the way to school and find that indeed more accidents have occurred at intersections than usual. Our prediction that wet roads cause accidents at intersections is confirmed.
How do you teach inductively [etm ch8, p277]?
The teacher presents specific data from which a generalization is to be drawn.
How do you teach deductively [etm ch8, p277]?
The teacher introduces the generalization to be learned.
What is another term for student-centered learning, and what is it [etm ch8, p282]?
- Unguided discovery learning
- the goal is to maintain a high level of student interest. This is accomplished largely by selecting content based on student problems or interests and by providing individually tailored feedback.
- Research papers, projects, portfolios, etc.
What are the seven teaching strategies of indirect instruction [etm ch8, p288]?
advance organization of content, induction and deduction, use of examples and nonex-amples, use of questions, use of student ideas, student self-evaluation, and group discussion.
Is the goal of teaching to use direct instruction, indirect instruction, or both? etm ch8, p290]?
- The purpose of introducing these models is to increase the variety of instructional strategies at my disposal.
What are the main parts of the direct instruction model [ep ch7, p200]?
- State learning objectives
- Review prerequisites
- Present new material
- Conduct learning probes
- Provide independent practice
- Assess performance
What are learning probes [ep ch7, p200]?
- Question the student for understanding of the material shortly after new material presentation, and correct misconceptions
- Used mostly with direct instruction
What questions do I ask myself when planning a lesson?
- What will students know or be able do do after the lesson [ep ch7, p203]?
- What prerequisite skills are needed to learn this content?
- What information, activities, and experiences will you provide to help students acquire the knowledge and skills they need in order to attain the learning outcomes?
- How will you arouse students’ interest in the content?
What is "review prerequisites" as part of the direct instruction model [ep ch7, p205]?
- Make connections with new material and what the student already knows
- Throughout the lesson and connected lessons a teacher can say "here again we see (definition, concept, etc.)
What is the rule-example-rule instruction strategy [ep ch7, p206]?
Pattern of teaching concepts by presenting a rule or definition, giving examples, and then showing how examples illustrate the rule.
What is wait time and why is it important [ep ch7, p2011]?
- The amount of time a teacher waits for a student to answer the question
- Teachers tend to move on to another student faster with lower learning students, which sets an expectation that they can't do it
What does classic research on seatwork state [ep ch7, p212]?
- Teacher time lecturing is more productive than seatwork
- For one, the students lose interest and get distracted
Rules for independent work [ep ch7, p213]?
- Keep independent practice assignments short
- Give clear instructions
- Get students started, and then avoid interruptions
- Monitor independent work
- Collect independent work and include it in student grades
What is transfer of learning [ep ch7, p218]?
- The transfer of school learning to practical situations
- Such as math skills to balancing budgets and calculating taxes and tips
- first teach same knowledge in one context, and then take the knowledge out of context and transfer to new contexts for greater deeper understanding
- Ex: teach the evolution of flippers in seals, then the evolution of humans, the evolution of social behaviors (cooperation of lions for example), the evolution of human behavior, evolution of business to market economies)
What is concept attainment [Article]?
- An indirect instructional strategy that uses a structured inquiry process.
- Students organize unrelated attributes and examples in order to distinguish the desired concept of a lesson.
- Advantages: Works well in a classroom with many different learning abilities
- helps make connections between what students know and what they will be learning
- learn how to sort out relevant information, and increases retention
What is linguistic learning? What is non-linguistic learning?
- linguistic is language, learning through words and reading
- non-linguistic is visual learning or what you can see, such as graphic organizers
- Based on the work of Jerome Bruner.
What are Graphic organizers?
Visual depictions of concepts, knowledge, or information.
What are the principles of understanding according to concept attainment strategy "core" [BYR DVD program 6]?
What are critical attributes [BYR DVD program 6]?
- Those that distinguish one concept from another
- For example the critical attributes of a chair are that it has a back, it has a seat, and it holds one person
- legs is not critical because some chairs have wheels and so "legs" does not define "chair"
- Once you have the critical attributes of a concept or thing, then you have understanding!
- You have profound and clear understanding why it's a chair, and not just because you have memorized the label " chair"
What is the number one predictor of success in school according to concept attainment strategy [BYR DVD program 6]?
- The number of concepts a child comes to school with, if they have more concepts they are more able to
- make connections and learning can occur.
What is the structure of concepts according to concept attainment strategy [BYR DVD program 6]?
What are the concept attainment phases according to concept attainment strategy [BYR DVD program 6]?
- Present examples (of fragmented ideas)
- Formulate hypothesis (students try and figure out)
- Present more examples
- Test hypothesis
What are various types of graphic organizers?
- Thematic, with the main idea in the middle and connecting conepts branching out
- Network Tree, with the main bubble at the top, branching down to the next row of two bubbles, branching down to two bubles underneath each of thos bubbles, superordinate, ordinate, subordinate ideas
- Problem and Solution map, with antecedant, cause, effect and solution (underneath)
- Compare and Contrast map, vertical showing similarities in the middle column, and differences on the outside columns
- Cycle, one concept leading to the next in a circle
What are the 4 sources to obtain knowledge about standards and objectives, learners, subject matter, and teaching methods [etm, ch 4, p113]?
- Practical experiences, such as viewing classroom videos, observing in classrooms, and student teaching
- Reading case studies about what more successful and less successful teachers have done
- Reading the professional literature about important goals and standards and paradigms for thinking about teaching Reading empirical studies about what the research says about your subject and how to teach it
Why should teachers use adaptive teaching, rather than ability grouping during instruction [etm, ch 2]?
- Adaptive teaching works to achieve success with all students, regardless of their individual differences which become obvious when you divide the class by tables of abiltity.
- It does so either by remediation (building the knowledge, skills, or abilities required to profit from the planned instruction
- Or compensation (emphasizing instructional methods/materials that rely on learner abilities that may be more highly developed)
What is differentiated instruction [etm, ch 2, p43]?
- When students are at tables based on ability grouping, the teacher can provided different or modified lesson plans to each group.
- Provides each student personal growth at their level.
What metaphor does Dr. Carol A. Tomlinson, a 20-year veteran of the classroom and a proponent of mixed-ability classrooms, use for the new phrase differentiation (mixed ability) etm, ch 2, p45]?
- An escalator rather than a staircase, so that students are always progressing at their pace, rather than meeting a grade level on the landing between stair cases
- All learners are different, some are fast and slow at different things, so we need to approach education that way
- Focus on strengths and abilities
- Teach at their level, "go to the children, teach them, start with what they know, build on what they have"
The idea of differentiation divides people into two camps: environmentalist position and the hereditarian position:
- The environmentalist position-
- The hereditarian position-
What is culture [ep ch 4, p94]?
The language, attitudes, ways of behaving, and other aspects of life that characterize a group of people.
Why are cooperative learning strategies (group work) used in instruction helpful for low-SES students [ep ch 4, p6]?
Because they come from a culture where they learned to rely on their communities, family, friends, and have always been helped by others. They don't succeed well in a competitive environment for grades and teacher time, etc.
What can teachers do to help SES students succeed[ep ch 4, p99]?
- communicate with the parents, research shows an increase of student achievement.
- the students can learn to be resilient and succeed in the face of adversity and challenge.
- improvising instruction and curriculum.
- teach non-western culture too.
- other family supportive services.
What is bilingual education [ep ch4, p108]?
Instructional program for students who speak little or no English in which some instruction is provided in the native language.
What is knowledge construction [ep ch 4, p111]?
refers to teachers helping children “understand how knowledge is created and how it is influenced by the racial, ethnic, and social-class positions of individuals and groups”.
Effective questions depend on more than just words...[etm, ch9 p298 ]?
voice inflection, word emphasis, word choice, and the context in which they are asked.
A convergent question can become a divergent question by changing the wording of the question.
What does the most basic question sequence involve [etm, ch9 p298 ]?
What are the 6 levels of cognitive complexity [etm, ch9 p305]?
How are synthesis questions different than analysis questions [etm, ch9 p309 ]?
More diversity in answers can be expected from synthesis questions than analysis questions.
Synthesis questions involve not just comparing and contrasting ideas, but creating new ideas that may offer new solutions to the problem.
Evaluation, is the highest question because you also argue why your solution is best.
What is a probe [etm, ch9 p311 ]?
A probe is a question that immediately follows a student’s response to a question to elicit clarification of the student’s response, solicit new information, or restructure the students response.
It structures and builds a higher knowledge level
What percentage of students in the classroom have a primary language other than english[etm, ch9 p311 ]?
Know my students dominant language in the receptive mode: listening, and reading, as well as in the expressive mode: talking, and writing.
Break down questions into simple form for ELL students
What is TIERS, and why is its significance [MAT Ch1,p5]?
- Title I Evaluation and Reporting Systems
- It contributed to a substantial expansion in the use of published standardized tests.
What did the NCLB in 2001 add to the standardized national testing that hadn't been included in the first 40 years of testing [MAT Ch1,p12]?
sanctions if schools don't meet these standards by 2013/2014
What is social learning theory [ETM, Ch7, p. 236]?
- The study of how people learn from observing others.
- Bandura, et al.
- Very helpful in teaching young children because they are not as adept at handling verbal instructions
- learn not only knowledge but infer what type of behavior the person is modeling
- 4 psychological processes need to occur for it to be effective:
- Attention, Retention, Production, Motivation
What is self-directed learning [ETM, Ch 10, p.330]?
An approach to both teaching and learning that actively engages students in the learning process to acquire higher-order thinking skills.
What are the 6 strategies of direct instruction?
daily review and checking, presenting and structuring new content, guided student practice, feedback and correctives, independent practice, and weekly and monthly reviews