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July, 1877 - A large number of railroad workers went on strike because of wage cuts. After a month of strikes, President Hayes sent troops to stop the rioting. The worst railroad violence was in Pittsburgh, with over 40 people killed by militia men.
The Great Strike of 1877
Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"
conditon in which an owner of a business firm can lose only the amount he or she has invested stockholder.
a railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical.
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
John D. Rockefeller
(economics) a market in which there are many buyers but only one seller. Owns more than 40% of distribution companies.
jobs that do not involve manual labor although they require less education and provide a lower income than do the jobs held by the upper-middle class (nurses, small-business owners, salesmen)
White Collar jobs
the production of large quantities of a standardized article (often using assembly line techniques)
Process by which a union representing a group of workers negotiates with management for a contract
one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century, demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories
Knights of labor
Leader of Knights Of Labor
Terence V. Powderly
A working establishment where only people belonging to the union are hired. It was done by the unions to protect their workers from cheap labor.
United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
A federation of North American labor unions, merged in 1955 with the Congress of Industrial Organizations to form the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL–CIO)
American Federation of Labor
a political theory favoring the abolition of governments
(1886) Chicago police advanced on a meeting that had been called to protest supposed brutalities by authorities. Dynamite bomb thrown and dozens were killed. Knights of labor were blamed for this incident, and lost public support
Haymarket Square Incident
Yellow Dog Contracts
A written contract between employers and employees in which the employees sign an agreement that they will notjoin a union while working for the company.
In 1892, 13 men were killed in a battle between striking steelworkers and strikebreakers at Carnegie's steel plant in Pittsburgh
was Carnegie's supplier of coke to fuel his steel mills as well as his right hand man. He was very anti-union. He was in charge of the mills when the Homestead Strike occurred. His decision to use strike breakers ignited the riot, and helped stain the image of unions.
Henry Clay Frick
The Pullman Strike was a nationwide conflict in the summer of 1894 between the new American Railway Union (ARU) and railroads that occurred in the United States. It shut down much of the nation's freight and passenger traffic west of Detroit, Michigan.
Great Pullman Boycott
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
Eugene V. Debs
an organization of common laborers and craft workers in a particular industry
strike by workers in many different industries at the same time
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