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Purpose of Planning
- to be both
- effective (doing the right things)
- efficient (doing things right).
the potential for success
Planning does not guarantee
that the right decision will be made
It is critical that police planners identify the status of three aspects of the organization:
monitor the extent to which goals have been achieved and ensure that the organization is moving in the direction suggested by the plans.
§ Controls- The mechanisms used to monitor the organization’s performance relative to its goals and plans.
the process of outlining the activities that are necessary to achieve goals of the organization.
- desired future states (the organization is not there yet)
- specify future ends
- plans specify today’s means.
A Plan is
a blueprint for action that prescribes the activities necessary for the organization to realize its goals.
Criteria for Effective Goals
- Challenging but realistic
- Defined Time Period
- Linked to Rewards
Does this happen in the public sector?- yes
Challenging but realistic goals
The goals set should be motivating but not beyond the organizations reach.
Defined Time Period goals
Goals should always specify the time period over which they will be achieved.
Linked to Rewards
The ultimate impact of goals depends on the extent to which salary increases or promotions and rewards are achieved.
Other Criteria to Consider for Effective Controls
Specific and Measurable- Goals should be expressed in clear, precise, or quantifiable terms.
Cover key result areas- Managers should identify a few key result areas that contribute most to company performance.
Setting goals in any size business starts with top management.
The planning process begins with a mission statement
The Mission Statement-
broadly describes the organization’s basic business scope and operations that distinguish it from similar organizations—ITS REASON FOR EXISTENCE.
Preparation of mission statement:
- Compels police managers to review the current status of the department.
- Draws attention to needed resources.
- Serves as a broad agreement between police, local government and the community.
Mission statements often focus on items such as:
- Desired types of activities
- Department values, aspirations, and reason for being
- Product quality
- Location of facilities
- Attitude toward employees
From the mission statement,
everyone knows the purpose of the Department.
Benefits of Planning
- Better Coordination
- Focus on Forward Thinking
- Participatory Work Environment
- More Effective Control Systems.
Two Primary Types of Planning
- Strategic Planning
- Operational Planning
Purpose of Strategic Planning
To move the organization from where it is…to where it wants to be.
The 3 Levels of Strategic Planning
- Corporate Strategic Planning
- Business Strategic Planning
- Functional StrategicPlanning
Outlines the tactical activities that must occur to support the ongoing operations of the organization through Operational Plans.
- Deals with organizational issues or problems that recur frequently.
- They ensure consistency of handling over time.
- They can also limit employee’s flexibility.
What other names are they known by?-SOP
Single Use Plans
- Developed to address a specific organizational situation that typically does not recur.
- Like what?____
- Single use plans typically also include programs and projects.
govern a relatively comprehensive set of activities to accomplish a particular set of goals.
direct the efforts of individuals or work units toward the achievement of specific, well-defined objectives.
Management by Objectives (MBO
- Provides a method for developing personalized plans that guide the activities of individual members of the organization.
- Focuses on the tasks to be completed by the individual member at that level.
- Managers and members jointly establish a set of goals as the foundation for the member’s work plan
MBO goal must
Mutual agreement between employee and supervisor creates the strongestcommitment (buy-in/Stake holder) to achieving objectives, and ultimately, theset of goals.
Balanced Scorecard (BSC)
- It is performance measurement process throughout the organization that aligns individual goals with the organization’s strategic goals.
- Employees can ensure that their individual action plans and goals are consistent with the overall direction of the organization.
Long-term planning includes
strategic goals and plans that may extend as far as five years into the future.
Short-term planning includes
operational goals for specific (sub-units) and individuals and has a time horizon of one year or less.
Start with a Strong Mission – serves to increase employee commitment and motivation as well as providing a guide for planning and decision making.
Thinking Strategically includes
- Core competence
- The Strategy
- Formulation process
Core competence –
a business activity that an organization does particularly well in comparison to competitors.
the condition that exists when the organization’s parts interact to produce a joint effect that is greater than the sum of the parts acting alone.
The Strategy Formulation process
The planning and decision making that leads to the establishment of the organization’s goals and the development of a specific strategic plan.
Situation Analysis often starts with
a SWOT analysis
are positive internal characteristics that anorganization can exploit to achieve its goals
are internal characteristics that may restrict organizational performance.
external characteristics that have the potential to help the organization achieve or exceed the strategic goals.
external characteristics that may prevent the organizationfrom achieving its goals.
The New Paradigm - (PDM-Participative Decision Making).
Some organizations are taking decentralized planning even farther and involving workers at every level of the organization in the planning process
STRATEGY FORMULATION IS
UNIVERSALLY KNOWN AS THE FIRST STEP IN THE STRATEGIC PLANNING PROCESS.
Properly formulated and maintained policy statements can provide
- Consistency of actions
- Clarification of directives and mandates
- Establishment and clarification of priorities
- Enhancement of police training
- Enhancement of community relations
Types of Administrative Guidelines
- Policy – a broad statement of the agency’s guiding principle.
- Procedure – a guide line for carrying out agency activities.
- Rules -a set of specific guidelines to which all employees must adhere.
- Policies - focus on goals and plans. -They must provide ambiguity to allow administrators to utilize their judgment.
Types of Administrative Guides
- General order
- Special order
It is a method, tool or vehicle which communicates policies, procedures, and rules.
Benefits of written policy:
- Reduces misinterpretation and misunderstanding.
- Serves as a reference when a procedure or application of a rule is in doubt.
- Allows for accountability.
A Policy that is properly formulated, understood, communicated and maintained does not
Hold a department strictly accountable to the community for justifiable noncompliance
The starting point of an effective policy manual is
a statement of the agency’s philosophy of policing (usually the mission statement), from which goals andobjectives are derived
Each written policy should state:
There are three categories of Terms Limiting Officer Discretion
- Judgmental - The word “may”
- Discouraging - The words “should” or“should not”
- Restrictive - The terms “shall” or“shall not” or “will” or “will not”
If policies are in place, agencies should then
consider whether the policies are adequate.
What must occur In the dissemination of a departmental policy?
training & education in some form
What three components of the manual provide guidelines and set the tone of the Agency from which all succeeding policies and procedures should be derived.
- Goals and objectives
- Fundamental rules of conduct
The developmental process of policy should provide for and take seriously,
the participation of the individuals who ultimately must live with the policy.
In Policy creation, there should be
input from a wide range of staff as well as from professionals and citizens outside the agency.
Forces Impacting the Development of the Policy Manual are
- Internally imposed sources ( influences within the department itself which effect administrative action.)
- Externally imposed sources (influences from unions, government, courts, and the community.)