: nerve cells that project information throughout the body. This is composed of the CNS and the PNS. The PNS breaks down further into automatic movements (autnomic) and voluntary movements (somatic). The autonomic system also has the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems which eith excite or relax the body's internal and external modes.
work in par with the nervous system. Glands release hormones that react with various targets in the body. This system is longer lasting and slower than the NS. There are lipid soluble and water soluble hormones.
The Immune system:
protects the body from invaders. antigens turn bad and become pathogens, which are the sicknesses and diseases. This system has THREE levels of defense; external barries, non specific immunity and specific immunity
The circulatory system:
transferring blood through the body. This system consists of WBC, haemoglobin, and platelets. There are also three pathways in which the blood is taken: the Pulmonary (to the lungs), the sytemic (to the body and back to the heart to be transported to the lungs) and the cardiac ( oxygen rich blood just for the heart)
- The respitory system: the exchange of oxygen. there is internal and external systems. internal is all about metabolization and external is all about breathing. there are many different airways:
- pharynx (throat)
- larynx (voice box)
- nasal cavity
: it deals with the motility, secretion, digestion and absorption of nutrients and food.