Health psychology

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Health psychology
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  1. What is behavioural medicine?
    a branch of medicine concerned with the relationship between health and behaviour
  2. What is health psychology?
    the application of psychological prinicples to the diagnosis and treatment of illness and people's well being
  3. What is psychosomatic medicine?
    a medical complaint is seen as being the result of an underlying emotional conflict that surfaces with physiological symptoms
  4. What is the Germ Theory?
    the discovery that many illnesses are from the invasion and activity of microorganisms like bacteria
  5. What is the gradient of reinforcement?
    the weakening of a behaviour the futher it gets in time from reinforcement of this behaviour

    the greater the lag time between the "good" behaviour and the "good" outcomes if the behaviour, the weaker the behaviour will be performed

    not seeing results causes the individual to stop the behaviour
  6. What is delayed gratification?
    the time lag betweenthe behaviour and the reinforcement

    term used by behaviourists

    EXAMPLE: working out and not seeing results the next day. The results take time (e.g.: delayed gratification)

    can lead to the lessening for the behaviour ( gradient of reinforcement)
  7. What does Asymptomatic mean?
    condtions that are not accompanied by palpable symptoms or sensations

    EXAMPLE: taking blood pressure medication to help keep the heart healthy, but no actual changes are seen
  8. What are coping styles?
    ways in which people deal with difficult situations found in the environment around them

    strategies
  9. What are monitors?
    information seekers who try to find information that will help them deal with an illness and its challenges
  10. What are blunters?
    people who AVOID information as an attempt to deal with an illness and its accompanying challenges
  11. What is psychoneuroimmunology?
    abrv. PNI

    the study of the relationship between psychological states and the immune system

    how psychological states effects the immune system
  12. What is immunocompetence?
    the extent to which our immune system is working to fight off microorganisms

    is it working? how well is it working?
  13. What are malignant neoplasms?
    cancerous growths that can be treated with radiation and chemical therapy
  14. What is the BioPsychoSocial approach? 
    a model used to explain that biological, psychological and social factors all play a role in the state of health or illness of an individual
  15. What is the health belief model?
    a model used that states that health threats exist and there are courses of actions that affect this threat (good OR bad)
  16. What is the response efficacy belief?
    the belief that a strategy to help reduce a threat will work.

    the extent to which you think different strategies will work compared to others to help fight the threat
  17. What is the cost-gain belief?
    your assesment of the costs of a specific action compared to the benefit of the behaviour on your health.

    is the action worth it?
  18. What is the theory of reasoned action?
    our behaviour is affected by our intention which is affected by our belief of the behaviour and the social norms people tend to follow
  19. What are subjective norms?
    the beliefs of what others think we should do and our motivation to go along with the views of these people.

    choosing whose opinions we will consider in our decision making about a certain behaviour
  20. What is percieved behavioural control?
    the belief that a specific beahviour is under control
  21. What is the theory of planned behaviour?
    our behaviour is affected by our intention which is affected by subjective norms and beliefs BUT ALSO THE BELIEF THAT WE ARE CAPABLE IN PERFORNING THE BEHAVIOUR.

    if we dont think we can do it, the behaviour will not be possible.
  22. What is the "stages of change" model?
    change is broken down into stages:

    SMOKING EXAMPLE-->

    1.precontemplation: haven't thought about quitting

    2.contemplation:started to think about quitting

    3.action: take the steps necessary to quit

    4.maintenance:keeping in this behaviour to get the results

    5.termination: reach this stage when they have abstained from smoking for several years

    6.relapse: understading that this does not mean failure, and that small bouts of smoking is just part of the process...just go back to the maintenance stage to fix the relapse
  23. What is an individualist?
    someone who focuses on independance and self-reliance rather than putting the needs of the majority before thier own

    ME, ME, ME
  24. What is a collectivist?
    someone who considers the needs of others or the majority and a priority before their own.

    the working together of a community rather than pushing only themselves forward
  25. What is Homeostasis?
    the body maintaining a stable internal state in spite of the pressures of the environment
  26. Neurons: afferent, efferent, synapse
    Neurons are nerve cells

    Afferent: nerve cells that go from sense organs (PNS) to the brain (CNS). Lower to higher levels

    Efferent: nerve cells that take impulses away from the brain.

    Synapse: the gap between neurons where neurotransmitters are released and react with the postsynaptice neuron. the way in which signals travel. 
  27. The CNS
    made up of the brain and the spinal cord
  28. The PNS
    all neurons throughout the body that is not the spinal cord or brain.

    • autonomic: involuntary muscle movements, heart beat etc.
    • --> sympathetic: fight or flight response, helps you prepare for frightening situations....COUGAR EXAMPLE.
    • -->parasympathetic: opposite of the sympathetic, helps you to calm down in stressful situations.

    Somatic: voluntary muscle movements, ones we decide to make.
  29. What are glial cells
    90% of CNS

    support systems for neurons

    provide nourishment

    "glue"
  30. What is the BBB
    acts as a barrier for substances or materials that try to enter the brain
  31. Meningitis
    inflammation of the membranes that help to protect the CNS
  32. What is the brain stem?
    connects the brain to the spinal cord.

    controls vital functions like breathing, wake cycles, posture and balance
  33. Cerebellum
    the "little brain"

    balance, coordination and voluntary movement

    above the brain stem
  34. Hypothalamus
    initiates the stress response with the nervous system and the endocrine system (hormones and electrical signals)
  35. Thalamus
    "traffic controller"

    sends sensory information to the appropriate places in the brain
  36. Lobes of the brain
    occipital: visual input is processed here

    temporal: sound interpretation

    parietal: language, voluntary movement, sensory info other than hearing and seeing (ex: TOUCH)

    frontal: emotion, thought, language, voluntary movement
  37. What is the sensory cortex?
    responsible for sensory activities in specific parts of the body

    sensations from the skin, joints, and muscles.
  38. Broca's area
    area of the brain that deals with the production of speech

    when damaged, speech comes out non fluent and stuttered
  39. Wernicke's area
    area of the brain that deals with the comprehension of language.

    when damaged, speech is completely fine, although the sentences and words do not flow together in a cohesive manner. 
  40. Strokes
    cardiovascular disease where blood flow to the brain is disrupted or blocked

    Ischemic: cause by a blockage

    Hemorrhagic: caused by a ruptured blood vessel
  41. Afferent and Efferent
    afferent nerves carry sensory information to the brain

    efferent nerves carry signals AWAY from the brain to the PNS
  42. What are tropic hormones
    hormones secreted by glands to produce and effect on other glands.

    like the way in which stress is dealt with in the endocrine system 

    Hypothalamus-pituitary gland....etc....
  43. ACTH hormone
    tropic hormone produced by the pituitary gland to stimulate the adrenal gland to produce CORTISOL
  44. Diabetes
    malfunction in the endocrine system

    too little secretion of insulin (produced by the pancreas)

    troubles converting sugar to energy
  45. Antigens Vs Pathogens
    • foreign micro-organisms that enter our body
    • VS...

    antigens gone BAD> have the potential to cause disease.
  46. What is specific immunity?
    the response to a specific pathogen we have already been in contact with...

    immunity to a specific pathogen
  47. What makes up the memory of the Immune system?
    Memory B cells help to remember specific pathogens we have already been in contact with and help to speed up the process of dealing with them. 

    B lymphocytes create antibodies against specific antigens

    Helper T cells help the B lymphocytes to create more antibodies> interleukins

    Supressor T cells help to stop the productions of more antibodies when the pathogen has been eliminated and killed.
  48. What is specificity?
    the ability of the immune system to remember an antigen and only respond the the remembered antigen.
  49. What is tolerance?
    the ability of the immune system to remember a specific pathogen and act on it without effecting and acting out on our body's OWN cells
  50. What is non-specific immunity
    the GENERAL protection against antigens 
  51. What are Natural Killer cells?
    "seek and destroy"

    kill off cells that look abnormal from the regular body cells and kills them off

    EX: cancer cells or cells on their way to death
  52. What is an autoimmune disease?
    when the immune system works AGAINST the body's own cells

    EX: Arthritis
  53. The Heart
    Atria: upper two chambers of the heart that transfer blood to the ventricles

    Ventricles: lower two chambers of the heart, that pump blood to either the lungs or the rest of the body

    Aorta: the main artery that carries OXYGEN RICH blood away from the heart

    Systole: contraction of the heart while pumping (emptying)

    Diastole: relaxing of the heart while pumping (filled)

    Arrhythmia: irregular beating of the heart

    hypertension: high blood pressure

    hypotension: low blood pressure
  54. What are contractile cells?
    cells that need to be activated in order to fire bring on the pumping of the heart
  55. Blood and lungs
    Bronchi: two main branches 

    Bronchioles: smaller branches off the bronchi

    alveoli: air sacs at the end of the     bronchioles > where CO2 and O2 are exchaged to oxygenate the blood

    pulmonary capillaries: facilitate the exchange of gases in the lungs > filled with blood and surround the aveoli
  56. What is "chronic obstructive pulmonary disease" (COPD)?
    shortness of breath

    EX:

    chronic bonchitis > inflammation in airways

    emphysema > results from damaged lung tissue > air pockets in the lungs
  57. Pneumonia... two kinds
    Lobar: infection in an entire lobe of the lung which causes inflammation of the aveoli

    Bronchial: restricted to the bronchi and normally accompanies colds and flus
  58. What is chyme?
    liquid material that travels in the digestive tract
  59. What does motility mean in terms of the digestive system?
    moving food through the system and mixing with digestive juices
  60. What is emesis?
    Vomiting

    emptying of stomach contents
  61. What is an "antimetic"?
    medication used to help with the reduction of nausea and therefore vomiting
  62. What is a peptic ulcer?
    pepsin in the stomach begins to erode the lining of the stomach

    bleeding or release of stomach contents from the stomach

    can damage tissue around the digestive tract
  63. What is Digestion?
    the process by which food is broken down by enzymes into small molecules that allow for the absorption of the nutrients into the blood stream.
  64. What is lactose intolerance?
    deficiency in lactase which helps to breakdown lactose in milk.

    build up of lactose in the small intestine

    Bacteria act on this lactose build up and create gas which causes the stomach cramping
  65. What is malabsorption?
    the inability to properly absorb the nutrients from the digestive system into the bloodstream

    could be cause my gluten enteropathy!!!
  66. What is the renal system?
    made up of the kidneys, nephrons, renal arteries and renal veins

    Ureter: carries urine from the KIDNEY TO BLADDER

    Urinary bladder: holds urine, can expand depending on the level of urine

    Urethra: empties urine from the bladder
  67. What is Kidney Dialysis?
    external devices that take on the work of the kidneys

    ongoing treatment at home or in a hospital with a machine > waiting for a TRANSPLANT
  68. What are gametes?
    the reproductive cells in males and females
  69. What are the Gonads?
    primary organs used for reproduction

    EX: males: testes and females: ovaries

    produce SEX HORMONES
  70. What is stress?
    the non-specific result of any demand on the body

    the effect the environment can have on the body
  71. What is coping?
    ways individuals deal with the stressors from the environment
  72. What is stress literacy?
    the amount of information that is known by an individual about the effects of stress
  73. What is eustress?
    a POSITIVE stressful event

    the acceptance of a challenge
  74. What is homeostasis?
    the body's physiological changes in order to keep a stable internal state of the body despite the demands and effects of the external environment.
  75. What is the fight of flight response
    it is the activation of the sympathetic nervous system in the face of a threat

    autnomic (automatic)
  76. The hypothalamus and stress
    the part of the brain that initiates the stress response

    nervous system AND endocrine system
  77. What is the adrenal medulla?
    • central part of the adrenal gland.
    • releases catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline)

    activated by the hypothalamus
  78. The limbic system
    adds emotion to the stress response of the body in the fight or flight motion of the PNS
  79. What is the reticular formation?
    runs through the middle of the brain that acts as a communication center that filters info between the brain and the rest of the body
  80. The pituitary gland and stress
    MASTER gland because it activates other systems to secrete different hormones

    ACTIVATED by the hypothalamus
  81. What is the adrenal cortex?
    outer part of the adrenal gland

    when stress is involved, it supplies the hormones to the body to increase one's blood pressure

    can adversely effect the body's ability to fight off disease
  82. What are glucocorticoids?
    released by the adrenal gland when under stress.

    EXAMPLE: Cortisol

    helps to convert protein and fats into glucose for energy.
  83. What role does the thyroid gland play in stress?
    it produces thyroxine which increases blood pressure, rate of respiration, and mental processes.

    individual feels more ANXIOUS or AGITATED
  84. The pancreas and stress
    releases insulin and glucagon dependant on blood sugar levels.

    INSULIN decreases sugar levels in the blood by storing it

    GLUCAGON increases blood sugar levels for energy in stressful times
  85. What is the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)?
    the three stage system designed by Selye.

    • the way the body responds to stress:
    •  Alarm, Resistance, Exhaustion

    ALARM: begins to defend against the stressor with the fight of flight response.

    • RESISTANCE: occurs when stressor changes from acute to chronic! resources begin to be used and extended over a period of time.
    • --> disease of adaptation!!!

    EXHAUSTION: the ability to resist the stressor breaks down
  86. What is your allostatic load?
    the long term physiological impact of chronic stress exposure
  87. What is the "stress-diathesis model"?
    examines the interaction between the environment and heredity 

    NATURE VS. NURTURE

    individuals had predisposing factors within them that determines how they will react to a stressor
  88. What are the cognitive transactional models?
    emphasizes the relationship between an individual and the environment and the specific APPRAISAL they use
  89. What is cognitive appraisal?
    the assesment of the situation to conclude if it is stressful or not
  90. What is primary appraisal?
    the initial evaluation of the situation 
  91. What is secondary appraisal?
    the individuals thoughts on their abilities to cope with the situation  
  92. What is reappraisal?
    the already existing outlooks on stressful situations (primary) are changed or modified in the basis of new information.
  93. What is irrelevant appraisal?
    the stressful event is deemed to have no effect on your well being
  94. What is benign positive appraisal?
    a stressful event is appraised as having positive outcomes and could possibly enhance well being
  95. What is stressful appraisal?
    Harm/loss appraisal: type of appraisal  that involves physical or psychological loss

    Threat appraisal: has the anticipation of harm/loss...could be threatening to ones psychological and physical well being

    Challenge appraisal: although is seen to be stressful, the focus is placed upon the positive excitement and the potential for growth
  96. What is meant by vulnerability?
    the levels of one's resources
  97. What is meant by "personal variables"?
    commitments a beliefs that interact with other variables within a situation which effect what appraisal we give a certain situation.

    depending on our beliefs, we could find different situations to be more stressful than others, or not to be stressful at all 
  98. What are situation variables?
    interact with an individuals variables that in turn effect the appraisal (the view) of a given situation
  99. Commitments VS beliefs as personal values
    commitments are concerned about what is important to the individual

    beliefs are pre existing notions that determine the meaning of the situation
  100. What is novelty?
    the extent to which an individuals previous experience of a situation influences the appraisal process
  101. What is predictability?
    the ability for the individual to prepare for an event depending on the environment.

    if predictable, stress level will be reduced
  102. What is event uncertainty?
    the inability to predict the situation of event and therefore, increases stress levels.
  103. What is imminence?
    the time interval that an event is spent being anticipated 

    increased time interval, the more intense the appraisal.

    if a situation is being anticipated for a long period of time, the appraisal (viewing) of the situation will be more in depth and well looked at
  104. What is duration?
    • the time period in which a stressful event occurs.
    • the longer the duration, the more stressful the event
  105. What is temporal uncertainty?
    the lack of knowledge when an event is going to occur, which therefore raises the stress levels of the situation 
  106. What is Type A behaviour pattern?
    • impatience
    • urgency
    • aggressive
    • hostility
    • competitive

    CORONARY HEART DISEASE WAS THOUGHT TO BE LINKED TO THIS KIND OF PERSONALITY

    Type B personality is the exact opposite of this
  107. What is social dominance?
    • wanting to be the center of attention
    • cutting people off when they are talking
    • always talking about yourself
    • wanting to dominate any social event of gathering

    risk factor for coronary heart disease
  108. What is a coping response?
    a physical or mental act used by an individual that is meant to reduce stress

    initiated by the stressor itself
  109. What is a stress response?
    spontaneous emotional or behavioural reaction to stress

    rather than coping with the stressor
  110. What is a coping goal?
    the objective or reasoning behind a particular coping strategy

    normally to reduce stress
  111. What are coping outcomes?
    the outcomes of a coping strategy
  112. What is "problem focused" coping?
    coping by actively knowing and adressing the stressors of a disease

    EXAMPLE: Caner and its treatment
  113. What is "emotion focused" coping?
    coping by finding ways to reduce the emotional impact of a disease without trying to cure it
  114. What is meant by personal resources when it comes to stress?
    resources found in an individuals life that helps reduce to impact of a stressful event and help to deal (cope) with the situations AS THEY OCCUR
  115. What is social support meant when it comes to stress?
    interpersonal (relationships) that are at an individuals disposal to help avoid stressful situations or to help with the coping process
  116. What is meant by emotional support when it comes to stress?
    support from people who take the time to understand the fears, problems etc... and help to calm us in these times

    distraction from the worries and stressors
  117. What is informational support when it comes to stress?
    • having information to help you through a tough situation 
    • treatment options
    • recovery times
  118. What is tangible support when it come to stress?
    • help with the demands of daily life
    • drives to the doctors
    • getting meals prepared
    • grocery shopping
  119. What is the stress buffering hypothesis?
    social support has an indirect effect and acts as a buffer to help protect individuals from the negative effects of stress

    support from others helps to lessen the "blow" of a stressful event
  120. What is meant by personal control?
    • feeling in control of a situation 
    • helps to lessen stressful situations

    Behaviroually: by taking actions to reduce stress

    Cognitivley: the belief of one's ability to control the impact of the stressful event
  121. What is Positive psychology?
    an approach for psychologist to focus on more positive frameworks and to focus on a more effective individual
  122. What is resilience?
    good outcomes inspite of serious threats to adaptation or development

    power of positive thinking :)
  123. What are stress management techniques?
    techniques that are specifically developped to help an individual deal with stress

    direct OR indirect
  124. Relaxation tehcniques
    the prinicple that we cant be relaxed an stressed at the same time.

    conserving your energy to be used for better purposes.
  125. What is hypometabolic?
    • a slowness in the physiological body
    • heart rate slows
    • breathing slows and becomes more calm
    • muscle tension decreases
  126. What is hypermetabolic?
    • everything is heightened
    • opposite of HYPOmetabolic
    • occurs with the "fight or flight response"
  127. What is progressive muscular relaxation?
    acheiving relaxation by the gradual tensing and relaxing different muscle groups
  128. What is meditation?
    focusing attention completley to a single thought or image

    • like shutting off the brain
    • focus on breathing (EX)
  129. What is biofeedback?
    the recording of physiological states by electronic measurements that provides information right away about an individuals state

    helps to help with physiological states
  130. What is systematic desensitization?
    a technique where individuals are given relaxation techniques in order to help with stressful situations, BUT are also exposed gradually to the stressor in order to reduce tension about it
  131. What is modelling?
    wathching a "model" coping well with a stressful situation  which will then facilitate a similar response in the observer

    Participant modelling: watching a model cope well and then diong it yourself WITH encouragement from the model
  132. What is cognitive reconstructing?
    maladaptive, stress-provoking thoughts are replaced with more appropriate ones
  133. What is stress inoculation training?
    • a way to cope with stress
    • 1.reviewing stressful event in less stressful views
    • 2.improve the coping strategies used
    • 3. first two steps are then used in relevant situatins in order to see the changes
  134. What is immunocompetence?
    the extent to which the immune system is functioning
  135. What is psychoneuroimmunology?
    the study of the relationship bewtween psychological states (stress, depression) on the immune system
  136. What is an enumarative assay?
    lab test done to count cells as they are found in the bloodstream

    WBC
  137. What are "functional" tests of immunity?
    looking at the immune system AT WORK
  138. What is a mitogen?
    a pretty harmless substance that stimulates immune activity as if the immune system was fighting off an antigen

    CON A, PHA, PWM
  139. What is NK cell cytotoxic acticity assay?
    a test done to view the effectivness of the NK cells when they are exposed to diseased cells

    Are they lysing properly? the right cells?

    lysis is destroying the damaged or unwanted cells
  140. What is an acute stressor?
    an immediate stressor that is quick lasting and in close proximity

    • could increase the ability of the immune system
    • suppresses specific immunity and uses NONSPECIFIC immunity
  141. What is an URI?
    • colds
    • coughs
    • bronchitis
  142. What is a stress-intrusion score?
    the measure of a stressors effect on an individuals life
  143. What are viral challenge studies?
    volunteer subjects are intentionally exposed to small amounts of URI's and environmental factors to measure the progression of the virus and the responses of the immune system
  144. What is the difference between "traits" and "states"?
    • states are short term conditions
    • traits are enduring conditions
    • traits are a part of the individuals personality
  145. What are Cytocines?
    • increases the body's ability to produce inflammation
    • help to fight wounds and infections

    cortisol helps to keep this in check, but when stress is involved, it effects cortisol which then INCREASES inflammtion which can result in disease
  146. What is applied discipline?
    researchers spend more time usinf thoeries rather than making new ones

    applying theories to actual real life problems
  147. What are case studies?
    • narrative accounts of one individual's health
    • symptoms
    • reactions
    • treatment
  148. what is correlational research?
    statistical analysis is done to determine if variable change together

    co-variation!
  149. Positive and negative correlations
    • when one variable increases or decreases, the other variable does the same
    • VS.
    • when one variable increases of decreases, the other variable does the exact opposite
  150. What is a factor analysis?
    analyzing many variables (factors) in order to find any patterns of occurence that exist between them
  151. The Experiment
    independant varaible: the manipulated variable

    dependant variable: the variable that is measured from the independant variable...the independant variable should effect the dependant variable

    experimental group: the group in the study that recieve the manipulation

    control group: the group that the experimental group is measured off of

    random assingment: everyone is placed within each group randomly, there are no specific requirements for each group....helps with a third variable of cofounding variable
  152. What is the main effects model?
    a scientific explanation that assumes that the outcomes from an experiment are dues to a SINGLE variable
  153. What is interaction?
    when variables combine to produce a different outcome than when each variable is looked at independantely
  154. What is a quasi-experimental design?
    research done in real life setting but where manipulations are done with variables

    as compared to doing the research in a experimental setting that could give a biased effect to the dats
  155. What is field research?
    research that is conducted in a real life setting
  156. What are random clinical trial studies?
    research where participants are assigned to random treatment contitions
  157. What is meant by inclusion criteria?
    the characteristics that make a person eligible to take part in a study
  158. What is the difference between longitudinal, cross sectional and retrospective research?
    longitudinal research follows one group of people over time to chart their changes

    cross sectional research is comparing two or more groups that differ on their stage of life

    retrospective research starts at the END of the timeline when health conditions have already been diagnosed or the individual has passed away and looking at their history to find variables that may have caused the sickness or death
  159. What are demand characteristics?
    the beliefs people have when they know they are in a psychology study

    • beliefs of how they should respond
    • beliefs of what are expected from them

    VALIDITY of the research is compromised....is it actually measuring what it should be measuring?
  160. What is the placebo conditions?
    the participants are given attention and possible a pseudo-medication but is different that what is the indepedant variable is actually trying to study
  161. what is experimenter bias?
    • the researcher effecting the data with thier influence
    • could cause specific responses of the participants
    • makes the design and data flawed
  162. What is a sampling bias?
    a factor or variable that may be shared between the participants that may cause the results to be biased because the participants have to CONSENT to taking apart in the study 
  163. What is complimentary treatment?
    the patient knowing that allopathy is using medications and such that is the opposite of the symptoms the individual is having

    Using medication!
  164. What is alternative treatment?
    any treatment that is not allopathic.. natural methods
  165. What is hollistic therapy?
    alternative therapies to help treat the whole person
  166. What are the 4 humors?
    • blood (courageous)
    • phlem (calm)
    • black bile (melancholy)
    • yellow bile (easily angered)

    disruptions with these cause issues
  167. what is the Miasma theory?
    the theory that disease is caused by "foul air"
  168. what is the Germ theory?
    the idea that microorganisms cause disease
  169. Is there any differences between what is killing us now from back in the 1900's?
    • No, not really
    • same things found although, just in smaller numbers

    • 1. Heart 
    • 2. Cancer
    • 3. airway
  170. What are the major components of each of the body systems?
    Nervous system: nerve cells that project information throughout the body. This is composed of the CNS and the PNS. The PNS breaks down further into automatic movements (autnomic) and voluntary movements (somatic). The autonomic system also has the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems which eith excite or relax the body's internal and external modes.

    Endocrine system: work in par with the nervous system. Glands release hormones that react with various targets in the body. This system is longer lasting and slower than the NS. There are lipid soluble and water soluble hormones.

    The Immune system: protects the body from invaders. antigens turn bad and become pathogens, which are the sicknesses and diseases. This system has THREE levels of defense; external barries, non specific immunity and specific immunity

    The circulatory system: transferring blood through the body. This system consists of WBC, haemoglobin, and platelets. There are also three pathways in which the blood is taken: the Pulmonary (to the lungs), the sytemic (to the body and back to the heart to be transported to the lungs) and the cardiac ( oxygen rich blood just for the heart) 

    • The respitory system: the exchange of oxygen. there is internal and external systems. internal is all about metabolization and external is all about breathing. there are many different airways:
    • pharynx (throat)
    • larynx (voice box)
    • trachea
    • nasal cavity

    Digestive system: it deals with the motility, secretion, digestion and absorption of nutrients and food.
  171. The endocrine system and STRESS
    • the hypothalamus interacts with the pituitary gland
    • the pituitary gland releases ACTH
    • ACTH reacts with the adrenal gland
    • releases epinephrine, norepinephrine and cortisol
  172. What are the three levels of immunity of the immune system?
    1.External barriers: skin and mucous membranes

    • 2.Non specific immunity: responds to ANY antigen.
    • lymphocytes-NK cells
    • inflammation-cells migrate to infected area

    • 3.Specific immunity: remebering specific antigens and responding quicker to the exposure the second time
    • Memory B cells-produce the antibodies
    • Helper T cells- help the B cells
    • Surpressor T cells-decrease the production of antibodies
  173. The heart and anxiety
    • individuals with heart problems have a higher risk of having anxiety!
    • This is because they think about the defect of the heart and think it is something to be anxious about

    • ALSO:
    • Type A personality
    • Socially Dominant
    • Defensivness
  174. Stress
    50-80% of all physical disorders are linked to stress

    • FIGHT OR FLIGHT OR TEND AND BEFRIEND
    • worrying about others (behaviour repsonse)
  175. What are the benfits of laughter therapy?
    • NS: activates the parasympathetic NS
    • endocrine: lowers the amount of cortisol that is released
    • Immune sytem: increases WBC counts 
    •  
  176. What is the General Adaptation Syndrome?
    • GAS (the body's way of dealing with stress)
    • Selyve
    • three stages:
    • alarm-dealing with immiediate stressors
    • resistance-moving from acute to CHRONIC- using resources to deal with the stressor
    • exhaustion-depleted all resources and immune system is depressed
  177. What is Appraisal?
    assessing an event to decide whether or not it is stressful

    Primary appraisal: Irrelevant, benign positive, stressful

    If stressful: harm/loss, threat, challenge

    secondary appraisal: assessing your resources to see their ability to cope with the possible stressful event

    reappraisal:existing appraisals are changed or modified with new information
  178. How do you measure immunocompetence?
    Blood cell count: look at NK cells, Bcells, Tcells...if TOO MANY cytokines ( inflammtion) are coutned, THIS IS BAD!

    • Functional States: 
    • In vitro- add mitogen to blood sample or expose NK cells to tumors and see their lysis abilities
    • In vivo- inject antigen into body and see how many antibodies are produced.

    BUT!!! for the Herpes virus, the more the better for Ab because they are always around to KEEP IT IN CHECK... 

    in any other circumstance, too many Ab is BAD!
  179. How does stress effect the immune system?
    Acute stress lowers specific immunity and increases NK cells 

    Short term stress increases specific immunity

    longterm stress lowers specific immunity and increases inflammation!
  180. URI's
    • most common effect of stress
    • more vulnerable to get sick if you are highly stressed

    negative interactions, competing for attention and all affected cytokine levels ( increased inflammation)
  181. PTSD
    longterm stress from a traumatic event

    study: vetrans with PTSD had higher levels of sickness

    TO SAY THAT STRESS IS CAUSING THE ILLNESS, YOU HAVE TO MANIPULATE STRESS!!!
  182. What are the kinds of coping? (2)
    • Emotion focused: reducing the emotional impact of a stressor
    • this is best used when you CANT FIX THE PROBLEM!
    • reasurrance, avoidance, distractions

    • Problem focused: coming up with a solution to the problem/stressor
    • seeking assistance, problem solving

    • Emotion focused coping was negativley correlated to quality of life
    • in other word, as quality of life goes up, emotion focused coping goes down....
  183. What are the resources for coping?
    • 1.Social support: relying on interpesonal relationships for coping
    • emotional, tangible, informational

    • 2.perception of control: having control over the situation and emotions
    • percieved behaviroual control: the thoughts of being able to perform a stress reducing behaviour
    • Percieved ability to control the outcome: my efforts will have an effect

    • PERCIEVED SOCIAL SUPPORT IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN THE ACTUAL SUPPORT!!!
    • makes you feel like you are better equipped
    • you feel in debt to someone to make the right choice
    • you know there is back up
  184. What is the stress buffering hypothesis?
    social support only protects us from HIGH levels of stress
  185. What is the direct effect model?
    social support always has an effect on our well being!
  186. What is the Biophilia hypothesis?
    the thought that exposing yourself to nature will reduce stress
  187. How can you manage stress?
    • Worry labelling: labelling your worries
    • Type1: can problem solve them
    • Type2: unrealistic, futuristic SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION

    Tolerance to uncertainty: do things that are uncertain to realize that although they aren't predictable, they are still ok

    PMR: progressive muscle relaxation
  188. What is resilience?
    the ability to have good outcomes despite the adversity

    • if you have:
    • community support
    • higher self esteem
    • skills with communication and problem solving
    • emotion regulation
  189. What is mindfulness and meditation?
    • east meets west
    • mind and body are CONNECTED
    • don't try and isolate the problem

    • acupressure
    • acupuncture
    • meditation

    • clarity and vivdness of the current experience
    • being in the NOW
    • using Bottom up processing!! all about the senses!!!
  190. Allopathic VS complementary VS alternative
    • biomedical
    • alternative AND biomedical
    • natural remedies only, no medication
  191. CAM example (4)
    • Natural: herbs, mineral, vitamins
    • Mind/body:acupressure, acupuncture,yoga
    • Manupulation: massage therapy, chiropractor
    • Other: reiki, healers
  192. How prevalent is CAM?
    • common (70%)
    • but not reported!!! (only 39%)
  193. Benefits and drawbacks of CAM
    POSITIVE: cost, no side effects, cultural beliefs

    NEGATIVE:cost, some side effects, don't know if it will work, don't know that techniques ACTUALLY work
  194. What is the Health Belief Model?
    a model that judges a health behaviour as if there is threat and and if a specific action will affect the threat

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