Human Anatomy

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Human Anatomy
2013-01-09 17:32:02

For Bio 490
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  1. What are the three layers of skin?
    • -Epidermis
    • -Dermis
    • -Subcutaneous (hypodermis)
  2. What and where are the arrector pili muscles located?
    What- Smooth muscles that cause hairs in skin to stand up

    Located- in dermis
  3. What are the subaceous glands?
    Oil glands. Secrete oil via canal to lubricate skin
  4. How many years ago did human begin become hairless?
  5. What are the functions of the skeletal system?
    • -Support and protect ex. head protects brain
    • -Movement
    • -Mineral Homeostasis
    • -Blood Cell production
    • -Triglyceride, salt and storage
  6. What two parts are the skeletal system broken down into?
    axial skeleton- skull, vertebral column and ribs

    appendicular skeleton- appendages (arms/legs)
  7. What is the difference between bone and cartilage?
    Bone- mineralized, and vascular

    Cartilage- flexible, a vascular, covers articluar surfaces
  8. What is the periosteums function?
    Lilnes external bone surfaces, bone maintenance (creates new bone)
  9. What is compact bone?
    Very dense bone, cells are still living, located in middle of bones
  10. What is spongy bone?
    Located more at the ends of bones. Have trabeculae.
  11. What is the Medullary Cavity?
    Found in long bones usually filled with yellow bone marrow.

    Filled with red bone marrow during blood cell formation.
  12. What are the different types of bones?
    • -Long bones: only bones that have medullary cavity
    • -Short bones: no medullary cativity; have spongy bone
    • -Flat bones
    • -Irregular bones: bones in face
    • -Sesmoid bones: form within tendons. Provide mechanical advantage to tendons.
  13. Functions of muscle tissue?
    • -producing body movement
    • -stabilizing body positions
    • -regulating organ volume
    • -moving substances within the body
    • -producing heat
  14. What is skeletal muscle?
    • Striated, voluntary muscle that connets:
    • bone--->bone
    • bone--->skin
    • bone--->organ
  15. What is cardiac muscle?
    Involuntary, striated muscle found in walls of heart
  16. What is smooth muscle?
    Involuntary muscle found around hollow organs
  17. In the cardiovascular system what do blood and its components do?
    Carry nutrients, oxygen and waste products to and from cells
  18. transverse planes
    seperate body into top and bottom
  19. Saggital plane
    separates body in to right and left
  20. superior (cranial)
    nearer to head

    ex. heart is superior to stomach
  21. inferior (caudal)
    nearer to feet

    ex. stomach is inferior to heart
  22. anterior (ventral)
    nearer to front

    ex. sternum is anterior to heart
  23. posterior (dorsal)
    hearer to back

    ex. kidneys are posterior to intestines
  24. medial
    nearer to midline

    ex. fifth digit (pinky finger) is on medial side of hand. Or medial to the first digit (thumb)
  25. lateral
    farther (away) from midline

    ex. first digit (thumb) is on lateral side of hand or lateral to fifth digit.
  26. proximal
    nearer to trunk or point of orgin

    ex. elbow is poximal to wrist; proximal part of artery is its beginning
  27. distal
    farther from trunk or point of orgin

    ex. wrist is distal to elbow; distal part of lower limb is foot
  28. Superficial
    nearer to or on surface

    ex. muscles of arm are superficial to its bone
  29. deep
    farther from surface

    ex. humerus is deep to arm muscles