SOPP Fire/Emergency Incident Technology

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SOPP Fire/Emergency Incident Technology
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  1. 1. Name the four methods of extinguishment described in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 1. Starvation- When all of the fuel is consumed, or removed from the area.
    • Smothering- Reducing or removing O2 from the immediate area of the fire          
    • Cooling- Dispersing the heat generated by combustion quicker than it can be produced
    • Interruption of the flame chain reaction- Combustion involves free radicals reacting and producing heat and chemical products. If this reaction is interrupted, combustion ceases
  2. 2. Water is the major extinguishing medium adopted by the Fire and Rescue NSW. List the benefits of water as a cooling agent as outlined in Vol.1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 2.      REITH
    •  
    • Readily available.
    • Easily applied to fires.
    • Inexpensive.
    • Transportable.
    • Highly efficient.
  3. 3. List four types of static water supply as described in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 3.
    • -Rivers          
    • -Dams                       
    • -Lakes                       
    • -Tanks                       
    • -Swimming Pools
  4. 4. Define the term ‘Latent Heat of Vaporisation’ as detailed in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual in the section 'Principles of Extinguishment'.
    4. The amount of heat required to vaporise a unit weight of the extinguishing medium.
  5. 5. Vol.1 of the Firefighters Training Manual in the Sect. ‘Principles of Extinguishment’ lists the classes of fire. Name and explain the various classes of fire including those involving electricity
    • 5.
    • A – All fires that involve solid materials of an organic nature.
    • B – Fires involving liquids or liquefiable solids.
    • C – All fires involving gases, including liquefied gases in either liquid or vapour state.
    • D – Al fires involving Metals.
    • F – Fires involving Cooking oils or fats.
    • Electrical fires- Are not considered a class. By definition an electrical arc is not a fire, but an electrical arc can lead to a fire in any of the foregoing classes.
  6. 6. Vol.1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains a section on the ‘Principles of Extinguishment’. What is the most appropriate extinguishing method for an ’F’ class fire?
    6. Smothering or Interrupting the Flame Chain Reaction.
  7. 7. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains a section on the 'Principles of Extinguishment'. What are the most effective methods for extinguishing a ‘B’ class fire?
    7. Smothering or Interrupting the Flame Chain Reaction. Cooling also plays a part in reducing the material below its flash point.
  8. 8. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains a section on the 'Principles of Extinguishment'. What are the most effective methods for extinguishing an ‘A’ class fire?
    8. Cooling is the most effective method.
  9. 9. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains a section on the 'Principles of Extinguishment'. What are the most effective methods for extinguishing a ‘D’ class fire?
    9. Smothering or Starvation is generally the only means.
  10. 10. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains a section on the 'Principles of Extinguishment'. What are the most effective methods for extinguishing a ‘C’ class fire?
    10. Interrupting the Flame Chain Reaction, or Smothering and absorbing heat by creating a radiation barrier. Also, if the gas supply is turned off the fire is starved of fuel.
  11. 11. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual section 7.7.1 lists a number of procedures that you should observe when attending any incidents involving explosives. List four of these procedures.
    • 11. Carry out all FF procedures from behind substantial cover and protection.
    • Make every effort to prevent explosives becoming involved in incident.
    • Protect exposures with water streams.
    • Evacuate all persons if explosives do become involved in incident.
    • Consider all substances involved in the incident to be potentially toxic.
    • Consider Wearing Breathing Apparatus.
  12. 12. The Firefighters Training Manual Vol 1, lists sub-classes of Class 1 Explosive Materials and their Characteristics. List the six sub-classes of Class 1 Explosive Materials and describe the characteristics of three of these.
    • 12.
    • 1.1 - Mass explosion hazard.
    • 1.2 - Projection hazard, no Mass explosion hazard.
    • 1.3 - Fire hazard and minor blast or projection hazard, or both. No Mass explosion hazard.
    • 1.4 - No significance.
    • 1.5 - Not very sensitive, have Mass Explosion hazard when initiated.
    • 1.6 - Extremely insensitive detonating substances.
  13. 13. Firefighters Training Manual Volume 1 list precautions that should be taken when approaching an LPG fuelled motor vehicle. List these six precautions
    • 13. -approach the vehicle from up-wind where practical;
    • - eliminate all ignition sources;
    • - evacuate all persons from the surrounding area as necessary and up to a distance as directed by the OIC
    • (This could be a radius of up to 200 m depending on the situation.);
    • - allow no one to come within the area of the vapour cloud;
    • -attempt to break up any vapour cloud by high pressure water sprays; and
    • - locate the source of the leak and stop it.
  14. 14. What is the unit of measurement of external radiation, as contained in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual?
    14. The Standard International (SI) Unit of equivalent dose of external radiation is the SIEVERT (Sv).  The rate of dose is measured in micro sieverts per hr (mSv/hr).
  15. 15. What are the three distinct types of ionising radiation as set out in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual?
    • 15.
    • -Alpha                       
    • -Beta              
    • -Gamma
  16. 16. Describe Gamma, Beta and Alpha radiation as contained in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 16.
    • Alpha - Extremely short range, low penetrating.  Heavy atomic particles can be shielded by paper.
    • Beta - Shorter range than Gamma, less penetrating. It is in the form of sub-atomic particles similar to Electrons, and travel at close to the speed of light. It can be shielded by 3mm aluminium.
    • Gamma - long range and highly penetrating. Like X-rays Gamma have a very short wave length and  
    • travels at speed of light. Heavy dense substances such as lead, concrete, and iron are required to shield against gamma radiation.
  17. 17. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual details a number of sources of radiation that firefighters may encounter. State four places where radiation hazards may exist.
    • 17.
    • - Manufacturing.
    • - Hospitals and health facilities.
    • - Transport.
    • - Research establishments.
    • - Premises storing Dangerous Goods
  18. 18. State the three main factors involved in protection from external radiation as contained in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 18.
    • Time- Effects increase with time exposed.
    •  
    • Distance- External radiation decreases the further you are from source, so increase space between yourself and source to reduce exposure.
    •  
    • Shielding-  Barriers/shields made of heavy dense materials (concrete, lead, iron, water) can stop various forms of radiation.
  19. 19. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains 'Working Guidelines' when attending incidents with radioactive materials. List these working guidelines and precautions.
    • 19.
    • - Refer to standing orders.
    • - Gather immediate intelligence.
    • - Seal off the area.
    • - Use dose rate meters.
    • - Use breathing apparatus
    • - Approach from upwind.
    • - Monitor dose rate- No greater than 10 uSv/h (10 Micro Sieverts per hour)
    • - Use standard fire fighting methods.
    • - Check personal decontamination.
    • - Obtain full EPA clearance. (now known as the DEC)
  20. 20. List the four main hazards associated with plastic fires in industrial situations as contained in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 20.
    • · Plastics have a great heat output;
    • · Plastics emit dense black smoke;
    • · Plastics have a heavy concentration of gases and fumes; andPlastics have an ever present danger of explosions from dust and flammable liquids.
  21. 21. List the five extinguishing methods that can be used with metallic sodium as listed in the Firefighters Training Manual Vol 1, Topic Three - Fire Suppression Special - Section 9 Metals.
    • 21.
    • • dry sand;
    • • G-1 graphite powder;
    • • soda ash (anhydrous sodium carbonate);
    • • powdered sodium chloride (table salt); and
    • • dry limestone (calcium carbonate).
  22. 22. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual lists a number of gases emitted from burning plastics. Name four of these gases.
    • 22.     HCNCH
    • -Hydrogen Cyanide
    • -Carbon Monoxide
    • -Nitrous Oxide
    • -Carbon Dioxide
    • -Hydrogen Chloride
  23. 23. List the factors that can affect the burning rate of plastics as detailed in Vol 1 of the firefighters Training Manual.
    • 23.
    • -State, form and process of manufacturing. The flammable characteristics of the product can vary from one manufacturer to another.
    •  
    • -Size of plastic and way it is stored. Plastics in a thin sheet or in powder form are more flammable than plastics in a thick, block state.
  24. 24. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual describes the behaviour of plastics in fire. What problems may melting plastics cause for firefighters?
    24. Many plastics tend to melt and flow when heated. This can cause the material to melt away from the fire and inhibit further burning. It may also produce tar-like flaming drip. This tar-like drip can start secondary fires some distance from the primary fire.
  25. 25. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual describes celluloid fires as one of the most dangerous plastics fires. State the characteristics of celluloid fires.
    • 25.
    • - Extremely fierce.
    • - Can cause explosions within the fire themselves.
    • - Produce potentially lethal nitrous fumes, oxides of nitrogen.
    • - Can cause humans long term problems, as effects of nitrous fumes are usually delayed.
    • - Very difficult to extinguish.
    • - Require large amounts of water to extinguish.
    • - Require SCBA during FF operation.
  26. 26. Firefighters Training Manual Volume 1 Topic Three - Fire Suppression Special Section 3 Trains, talks about problems a freight train may present. List these five problems.
    • 26.
    • • danger from 1500 V overhead power wires;
    • • danger from other on-coming trains;
    • • danger from any ruptured freight wagon or container, especially one carrying dangerous goods;
    • • danger from fire;
    • • danger from the locomotive fuel leakage; and
    • • danger from hazardous materials.
  27. 27. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual sets out practical considerations to prevent unnecessary damage during firefighting. State how firefighters can reduce the amount of unnecessary damage and assist salvage operations.
    • 27.
    • - Keep the amount of water used to a minimum.
    • - Use hand controlled branches.
    • - Reduce to smaller jets, fog or sprays asap.
    • - Replace damaged or leaking hose.
    • - Use FB booster fittings.
    • - Use salvage sheets.
    • - Utilise water vacs.
  28. 28. According to Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual, when should salvage operations commence?
    • 28.
    • - Begin ASAP, depending on circumstances of fire, and crew availability.
    • - The sooner that plant and stock can be protected by salvage sheets or plastic sheeting, the more we can help to prevent damage.
    • - When possible, we commence Salvage Operations on the level where the fire is located. If that is not possible we start on the floor or floors below the fire.
  29. 29. According to Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual overhaul is a procedure carried out at an incident after the fire is extinguished. What is the purpose of overhaul?
    • 29.
    • - Search scene to detect hidden fires or sparks that can re-ignite.
    • - Note possible point of origin and cause of the fire.
  30. 30. Before carrying out 'Overhaul procedures', the building must be safe. What conditions must be considered before firefighters begin overhaul work as set out in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual?
    • 30.
    • First determine condition of the Building after it has been affected by:
    • (1)strength of fire
    • (2)amount of water used
    •  
    • Be aware of the conditions that can make the Building dangerous (weakened areas)
    • * floors – burnt joists
    • * concrete
    • * steel roof members      
    • * walls – elongation of steel roof supports
    • * roof trusses – burnt key members
  31. 31. In the section 'Overhaul' in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual it describes the safe working practices when extinguishing hidden fires. State these safe working practices.
    • 31.
    • - Wear SCBA and full PPE.
    • - Have charged hose line available. Position branch so accidental operation won’t cause further water damage.
    • - Use smaller hose lines for easier handling.
    • - Remove items such as mattresses and stuffed furniture to outside, so if re-ignition occurs it can safely and quickly be extinguished
    • - Keep up communication & work in pairs
  32. 32. What is 'Ventilation’? List three of the benefits to firefighting when ventilation is properly performed as contained in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 32.
    • ‘The systematic removal of heated air, smoke and gases from a structure, and the introduction of cooler air. This allows Firefighters to enter and carry out Firefighting operations in a safer, more manageable environment’.
    • When performed properly;
    • - Helps deploy attack lines quicker.
    • - Enhances S&R Op’s
    • - Can reduce fire loss considerably.
  33. 33. According to Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual, how is ventilation best achieved?
    • 33.
    • - Provide openings for smoke, heat and gases to vent naturally to atmosphere.
    • - Use water fog to aid ventilation through openings.
    • - Use mechanical ventilation.
    • - Ventilate asap.
    • - Have charged lines and BA crews ready to enter immediately.
  34. 34. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual details the 'Conditions required before ventilating'. List the four conditions to be met prior to initiating ventilation.
    • 34.
    • - Locate seat of the fire.
    • - Crews ready to enter with charged hose.
    • - Back-up crews ready to enter.
    • - Communications amongst all crews is established.
  35. 35. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual includes 'Hazards associated with smouldering fires' in the section on Ventilation. List and explain the three hazards to be considered in regard to materials that are still burning.
    • 35.
    • -Building materials are often exposed to temperatures above their ignition point but are not burning due to either lack of oxygen or a short exposure period;
    • -Pre-heated materials can burst into flames with explosive force when oxygen is introduced in the ventilation operation
    • -Heated materials give off vaporised fuel elements and compounds that combine with combustion gases and further increase the flammability of the atmosphere
  36. 36. Explain stratification of smoke and the products of combustion as detailed in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 36.
    • Is a condition created above the fire floor in multi-storey buildings, which, by nature are sealed to the top floor.Heat, smoke, and fire gases rise gradually through any vertical openings. They spread to the floors above the fire. As the heat dissipates into the surrounding atmosphere, the smoke and fire gases form layers within the building. The more heat produced by the fire, the higher these layers will penetrate.
  37. 37. When carrying out vertical ventilation, where should the opening be positioned and what can be the effect of incorrectly positioning the vent hole?
    • 37.
    • - The opening should be at the highest part of the roof directly over the fire if possible.
    • - If the opening is incorrectly positioned the fire may be pulled through structure toward the hole, spreading the fire and increasing the damage.
  38. 38. State what is 'Trench Ventilation' and how it can be achieved as contained in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 38.
    • Trench ventilation is a form of vertical ventilation. When trench ventilation is used correctly, it prevents the horizontal spread of the smoke and fire through a large building.
    •  
    • Trenching is carried out by cutting a 1m wide opening across the entire width of the roof. After you have cut the hole in the roof, you should then open the ceiling below to the same degree.
  39. 39. List the eight safety precautions, set out in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual, that should be used during vertical or trench ventilation.
    • 39.
    • 1. Don’t walk on spongy roofs (Sign of weakened structural members).
    • 2. Prevent Firefighters sliding & falling.
    • 3. Exercise caution when working near electric wires.
    • 4. Ensure FF’s making opening is in correct PPE and standing on windward side of cut.
    • 5. Watch for indications of weakening structure or other hazards.
    • 6. Apply extreme caution when using power tools;
    • 7. Keep a firm footing.
    • 8. Always have a means of retreat.
  40. 40. State how 'Horizontal Ventilation' can be achieved and how it removes the products of combustion as contained in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 40.
    • -HORIZONTAL VENTILATION can be achieved by opening windows and doors.
    • -This allows the ventilation to travel laterally through the building. Smoke, gases, and accumulated heat are removed by the movement of cooler air introduced at the ground or fire level.
  41. 41. Explain how windows can be used for horizontal ventilation as detailed in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 41.
    • - Windows provide best openings for horizontal ventilation.
    • - When you use windows for ventilation, it is most effective to open the higher parts of windows on the downwind side and to open the lower parts on the upwind side.
    • - Remove curtains and blinds to get max efficiency of window opening.
  42. 42. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual indicates that building design, construction and occupancy are the main factors that determine whether horizontal or vertical ventilation would be appropriate.
    a. list three design features that affect the decision to use horizontal ventilation, and:
    b. list three types of buildings that are best suited to horizontal ventilation.
    • 42.
    • a) List three design features that affect the decision to use horizontal ventilation, and:
    • 1. Exterior fire escapes.
    • 2. Nearest exposures.
    • 3. Number of floors.
    • 4. Number and size of any wall or roof openings.
    • b)List three types of buildings that are best suited to horizontal ventilation.
    • 1. Homes where roof is not involved in the fire.
    • 2. Buildings where windows are close under eaves.
    • 3. High rise buildings where each involved floor has operable windows.4. Warehouses with large under-roof spaces that may have been weakened by fire.
  43. 43. Describe positive pressure ventilation as detailed in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 43.
    • Pos. Press. ventilation is a forced ventilation technique that operates by creating pressure differentials
    • -It forces clean, fresh, pressurised air into the building and creates a positive pressure, similar to the pressure you create when you blow up a balloon.
    • -The positive pressure is equal at the top, bottom, and corners of the building.
    • -When you open the window, the contaminants from all parts of the building exhaust to the exterior.
  44. 44. List five of the advantages of positive pressure ventilation as detailed in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 44.
    • 1. Personnel are not exposed to hazardous contaminants when positioning exterior PPV blowers.
    • 2. Doorways, windows and halls don’t need to be blocked by blowers.
    • 3. Exterior PPV blowers don’t depend on additional equipment for set-up and operation.
    • 4. Set-up operation requires less time &, in some instances, fewer personnel to put exterior blowers into operation as no other equipment or accessories are necessary.
    • 5. PPV fans are efficient in removing contaminants at top, bottom and corners of buildings
    • 6. Contaminants are not drawn through the PPV fan, minimizing cleaning and maintenance.
    • 7. Positive pressure Ventilation is at least twice as efficient at removing contaminants as negative pressure
  45. 45. List six operational considerations related to the use of positive pressure ventilation as contained in Vol 1 of the Firefighters training Manual.
    • 45.
    • Single Blower - If you are using a single blower, you should place it so that the cone of pressurized air just covers the entrance opening Multiple Blowers - If you use more than one blower, the volume of air flow is dramatically increased. Adjust the exhaust opening - Positive pressure is the most efficient when the exhaust opening (window or door), is between ¾  and 1 ¾ the size of the entrance openingEffects of the weather - Wind can have an adverse effect on positive pressure ventilation, but its effects depend on wind direction and velocity. Effect on the size of the blower – Large blowers provide higher m³/s ratings, provide a large cone for covering openings into an area to be ventilated, and increases versatility. Power used by the blower - Petrol blowers often increase versatility and flexibility. But they add Co to the air.
    • 2-Stroke about 30ppm, 4 Stroke about 60ppm
  46. 46. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual includes information about incident safety when attacking a fire. List ten safety considerations prior to entering a structure on fire.
    • 46.
    • 1. Ensure PPE worn at all times, including helmet.
    • 2. Stand to side when breaking glass. Use the flat of the axe head and hold the handle horizontally so that the glass does not slide down the axe handle onto your hand;
    • 3. Avoid looking up in areas where debris can fall on you.
    • 4. Test temperature of door handles with back of hand before attempting to open.
    • 5. Open doors cautiously giving yourself max protection.
    • 6. For ‘Outward opening doors’, stand behind, foot against, open slowly to release pressure that may have built up. Use door as protection from first rush of heat and smoke released.
    • 7. For ‘Inward opening doors’, crouch low to ground, use adjoining wall for protection.
    • 8. If entering a room on fire, keep door closed until ready to attack, prevent further fire spread.
    • 9. Use spray or fog nozzles when you first enter the burning building or room.
    • 10. Make quick circular movement with branch on initial entry to rooms; this will reduce temperature, as it drive back smoke making it easier for Firefighters to enter.
  47. 47. List and briefly describe the factors to be considered when siting an appliance as set out in the section 'Attacking the Fire' in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 47.
    • Wind Direction – Site the appliance and major equipment clear of smoke, toxic fumes. Consider the direction of prevailing wind, and anticipate changes in wind direction.
    • Exposure to radiant heat – Radiant heat may be minimal on arrival. As the fire grows in intensity, the heat can damage or destroy incorrectly placed appliances and equipment. Repositioning of appliances may require you to shut down hose lines and may have a detrimental effect on firefighting.
    • Electrical Hazards – position away from overhead power cables and equipment, as wires can sag or fall with fire exposure.
    • Traffic – position to provide max safety to crews, appliances and equipment, avoid unnecessary road disruptions. Give clear indications to traffic if appliances or equipment are in the line of traffic.
  48. 48. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual includes information about incident safety when attacking a fire. State the major safety considerations related to securing a line of retreat.
    • 48.
    • -When you are working hose in a building make sure that the fire does not get behind you.
    • -If the fire travels unnoticed behind stock piles, the fire may cut off your retreat or operate
    • fusible links that automatically close doors or shutters restricting water supply and access for any backup crews
    • -When you take up a position, ensure that your line of retreat is secure: the rapid advance of a roof fire can cut firefighters off from a ladder, or falling debris can block a means of retreat.
    • -You should always be alert to the possibility of dangerous conditions.
  49. 49. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual includes information about incident safety when attacking a fire. List and describe five major safety considerations related to working within buildings.
    • 49.
    • 1. The safest places under a weakened ceiling are beneath a door arch and next to the walls. If the ceiling collapses, the door arch will give some protection, and the walls may provide some voids where the ends of the joists are located since the ceiling usually collapses in the centre.2. Illuminate the building as soon as possible, as this improves visibility and reduces the danger of injuries.
    • 3. Ventilate a bottled-up fire from above and not from below. A sudden flow of air into an atmosphere may cause backdraught 4. If you are moving on a damaged stairway, stay near the strings, preferable the wall strings for better chance of stability
    • 5. If you descend a stairway, do so backwards, and feel each tread with the foot, and keep hold of treads
    • 6. When moving on a damaged floor stay near to the walls
    • 7. Do not use lifts in buildings involved in fire, to prevent from becoming trapped
  50. 50. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual includes information about incident safety when moving Through Smoke. List and describe four general safe working practices when moving through smoke.
    • 50.
    • 1. Do not handle objects unnecessarily as you can suffer injury from materials that are hot, sharp, electrified, or dangerous in some other way or from acids and alkalis which are corrosive.
    • 2. When you are moving in a smoky or darkened area, you can use a line of hose as a guide to the fire area and to the exit
    • 3. When you are working in smoke, stay low and crawl if necessary to escape the heat and smoke as they rise and give a better possibility of greater vision and comfort at floor level. If your BA becomes damaged or out of air, you will find it easier to breathe if you are near the floor.
    • 4. If you must work in smoke without BA, breathe through your nose at the normal rate and avoid the tendency to take short sharp breaths through your mouth, as this can lead to a fit of coughing that may be difficult to stop, because of the reflex nature of coughing. A coughing fit can leave you prostrate. Keep your eyes closed as much as safely possible.
  51. 51. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual includes information about attacking a fire. State the principal signs of possible building collapse.
    • 51.
    • 1.   Cracked or dropping arches over doors, windows, and other openings.
    • 2.   Falling mortar, concrete, corruces.
    • 3.   Sagging floors or beams.
    • 4.   Gaps between edges of floors and walls.
    • 5.   Displacement of steel or cast iron pillars supporting joints or beams.
    • * Consider evacuation if any signs are evident.
  52. 52. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual includes information about tactical priorities for a structure fire. State and briefly describe the tactical priorities contained within the acronym RECEO.
    • 52.
    • Rescue – Protection and preservation of life is first consideration.
    • Exposures – Any adjoining structure or property not directly involved but at risk if fire spreads/intensifies.
    • Containment – Involves operations that prevent a fire from spreading to uninvolved parts of a building.
    • Extinguishment – The OIC’s initial size-up should determine method of attack. Extinguishing methods/efforts may change as fire changes.
    • Overhaul / Salvage–
    • Overhaul - After the fire has been extinguished we search the fire scene for hidden fires or sparks that could re-ignite. This should take place asap after the fire has been knocked down.
    • Salvage - consist of methods and operating procedures that aid in reducing damage by fire, water, and smoke, during and after fires
  53. 53. What are the two common forms of LPG listed in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual?
    • 53.
    • - Propane
    • - Butane
  54. 54. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains information about LPG. State the three factors contributing to the magnitude of a BLEVE.
    • 54.
    • - Size of container.
    • - Quantity of liquid which vaporizes when container fails.
    • - Weight of pieces of container.
  55. 55. List five safety precautions to consider when attending accidents involving LPG fuelled motor vehicles as detailed in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 55.
    • - Keep unauthorized personnel and by standers at a minimum distance of 75 m from fire.
    • - Cool vehicle with fixed hose streams before Firefighters approach the fire.
    • - Position Firefighter’s behind cover during cooling down Operations.
    • - Approach vehicle from sides.
    • - Take extra care if vehicle has been burning for prolonged period.
    • - Pressure relief valve should be activated, indicating the condition or temp of LPG cylinder.
  56. 56. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains information about LPG. At an incident involving a fire fuelled by a LPG leak, list and describe the ten points that should be taken to minimise the likelihood of the storage vessel failing.
    • 56.
    • 1. Avoid creating rivulets of water on container, as temperature will rise dramatically where water is not evenly cooling container.
    • 2. Distribute water evenly over entire surface, allow for angle of attack and vessels shape.
    • 3. Attack cylinders from the side, maintain good water supply, and use sprays if possible.
    • 4. Concentrate water on areas exposed to heat rather than whole container, especially above the liquid line where heat is not being absorbed.
    • 5. Remember that cooling water applied to the upper surface of a cylinder or spherical tank is not likely to be effective below its equator.
    • 6. Apply water at point of flame contact, critical area of container is the vapour space above the liquid level; this is priority area for cooling.
    • 7. If water supplies inadequate, construct dams and re-use waste water.
    • 8. If access to a functioning shut-off valve exists, crews in PPE approaching behind protective water fog may shut-off. Approach from sides, not ends.
    • 9. Important to spray jets of water continuously on container during entire operation.
    • 10. Allow minimum number of people into combat zone.
  57. 57. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains information about LPG. What is a BLEVE and how does it occur?
    • 57.
    • Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion is the result of a liquefied gas storage container failing due to exposure to fire.
    • - Liquefied gases are stored at varying pressures at normal temperatures.
    • - Any rise in temperature of the liquid within the container increases vapourisation.
    • - If the rise in temperature is great enough such as in a fire, a rise in pressure also occurs.
    • - The Pressure relief valve should operate, although the rise in pressure may exceed the coping pressure of the valve.
    • - The vapours then build up quicker than they can be released, causing container failure.
    • - The heat stored in the liquid causes it to rapidly boil and expand.
    • - With the presence of fire, temperature is greater, and the liquid can reach boiling point immediately. 
    • - The result is an expanding vapour explosion. 
    • -  Most B.L.E.V.E’s occur when containers are filled from slightly less than half full capacity to about 3/4 full of liquid.
  58. 58. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains information about LPG. If you attend an LPG incident where a major leak, in a large storage vessel or road tanker, is confirmed or suspected but ignition has not occurred state the actions should you take.
    • 58.
    • - Evacuate persons from immediate area, within a radius of 200m, especially downwind of gas escape.
    • - Instruct everyone in the area surrounding the incident to eliminate all ignition sources by turning off gas appliances, pilots, refrigerators, electric stoves, heater appliances etc.
    • - If leak from a storage tank, consult plant personnel to locate valves used to stop flow.- If leak from mobile tanker, consult driver to locate valves and reduce or stop flow.
  59. 59. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains information about LPG. List two indications that the pressure inside a LPG cylinder is rising.
    • 59.
    • - Noise level from valve increases.
    • - Signs of bulging or blistering on the outside of tank or cylinder.
    • Operation or non-operation of pressure relief valve does not mean a BLEVE is imminent!
  60. 60. LPG presents special hazards to firefighters. When mixed with air, LPG forms a flammable mixture. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual outlines the characteristics of LPG when mixed with air. Outline the hazardous characteristics of LPG.
    • 60.
    • 1. LPG: Air mixtures can be flammable between 2-10%.
    • 2. When the amount of LPG is above 10%, ignition is a possibility if ventilation is conducted
    • 3. When mixed with air 1L LPG (liquid), produces 250-275L of gas.
    • 4. When this much gas is mixed with enough air to become flammable, the volume would be as much as 2500-13750 L
    • 5. A cylinder that seems to be empty may have a Flammable mixture present.
    • 6. In still weather conditions LPG disperses very slowly
    • 7. LPG vapour is heavier than air, flowing along ground, into drains, manholes as it sinks to the lowest level. Can travel significant distances before igniting remotely.
    • 8. Wind can push LPG away from point of release, accumulating in obscure places.
    • 9. LPG vapour in sufficiently high concentrations can have an anesthetic and asphyxiation risk as air is displaced.
    • 10. LPG is difficult to detect as it is invisible in air.
  61. 61. What are two types of fuel used in aircraft as set out in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual?
    • 61.
    • - Petrol or Gasoline (Piston engines)                  
    • - Kerosene or Jet fuel (Turbine engines)
  62. 62. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains information about aircraft incidents and the types of airport alerts that may be called by air traffic controllers. List the three levels of an Emergency Alert.
    • 62.
    • Level 1 = up to 18 seats (light aircraft)
    • Level 2 = up to 150 seats (medium aircraft) Level 3 = more than 150 seats (heavy aircraft)
    •  * Air traffic controllers will notify the NSWFB via police radio of an emergency situation at an airport.
  63. 63. All aircraft have emergency exit points. Vol 1 the Firefighters Training Manual details the types of emergency exits incorporated on aircraft. List and describe these exits as outlined in the Manual.
    • 63.
    • Emergency Doors
    • - Found on all large aircraft.
    • - Identified by thin line of paint.
    • - Can be opened from inside or outside.
    • Emergency Hatches
    • - Usually selected window panels located above wing roof.
    • - Open by turning handle, pushing hatch inwards into the aircraft interior.
    • Cut-In Points
    • - Identified by dotted lines on the outside of the aircraft.
    • - Represent parts of plane that provides least resistance to forcible entry.
    • - Normally located on roof.
    • - Show areas unlikely to find structural members, service pipes and wiring.- Use as a last resort
  64. 64. List three considerations that form a typical tactical plan for attacking an aircraft fire as outlined in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 64.
    • - Approach upwind.
    • - Approach diagonally.
    • - Evacuation corridor.
    •  
    • * These basic tactical plans allow vehicles to deploy to set positions with minimal instruction or delay.
  65. 65. What are the three kerosene aviation fuels described in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual?
    • 65.
    • 1. Avtur - 2 grades- Avtur 40 and Avtur 50 (flashpoint above 37.8’C)
    •  
    • 2. Avtag - Similar to petrol (flashpoint -20’C)
    •  
    • 3. Avcat - Specially distilled for naval aircraft (flashpoint  above 65’C)
  66. 66. State the Method of Attack for an aircraft fire as contained in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual, Firefighting at Aerodromes.
    • 66.
    • - Isolate fuselage to create a clear egress point to assist rescue operation.
    • - In normal wind conditions, a tactical front or tail-on approach.
    • - If the fire is in the wings or engines, start to attack the fire from the wing roots
    • - Protection of fuselage is priority to allow for evacuation of passengers
    • - Identify fuel spillages and wash away from under aircraft with hose lines or lay down foam blanket.
    • - Determine wind direction, attempting to keep one side free of smoke & radiant heat.
    • - Use foam monitors, branches and back-up with DCP or vapourising liquids for main fire attack.
    • - Ensure fuel is not inadvertently washed under the fuselage during FF operations.
    • - Allow foam to strike and flow over the aircraft surfaces. Diffuser branches assist this application.
    • - Don’t disturb foam blanket with hose line jets.
  67. 67. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual includes information about incident safety when working with Roadway Hydrants. Detail the general safe working practices when working with Roadway Hydrants.
    • 67.
    • -When you are using water hydrants in the roadway, warn the on-coming traffic with a Delta strobe light or the three portable warning signals. Wear high visibility vests and helmets
    • - open the valve slowly to prevent damage to the hose through the sudden build up of water pressure;- close the valve slowly to prevent water hammer and a possible burst mains. Water is not compressible, and the effect called water hammer is the result of shock generated if water is suddenly stopped or constricted;
    • - after using the hydrant, check to ensure that the hydrant is properly closed, that no water is leaking out, and that the hydrant pit is left clean of debris; and don’t open the hydrant valve unless you have first securely shipped the standpipe, this prevents sand and small obstructions from entering the hydrant outlet. Such debris can contaminate the mains and prevent a good seating between the standpipe washer and the hydrant outlet.
  68. 68. MOVED TO SOG SECTION.
    68. MOVED TO SOG SECTION.
  69. 69. What are the main causes of natural gas escape in a house or building as outlined in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual?
    • 69.
    • - Gas appliances have been installed incorrectly.
    • - Gas appliances have been tampered with.
    • - Regulations have been ignored when the gas appliances were installed
  70. 70. When responding to a natural gas leak, what actions can be taken to make the area safe as detailed in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual?
    • 70.
    • - Clear all persons from the area affected by the gas escape.
    • - Identify and prohibit all ignition sources.- Check that all equipment being used is intrinsically safe.
  71. 71. What are the procedures that should be followed when responding to a natural gas escape incident in a home or building as described in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual?
    • 71.
    • - Immediately locate the gas supply and turn it off at the meter control valve.
    • - If the gas meter control valve cannot be shut off clear the area of all unauthorized personnel and ensure the NG company has been notified of an emergency.
    • - If building must be entered remember risk of toxic gas, carbon monoxide may be present
    • - Take note of position of controls and knobs if they need to be disturbed so this information can be recalled later for technical reports.
  72. 72. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains information about natural gas incidents. Why is it important to use water in moderation at a natural gas incident?
    • 72.
    • - Use water in moderation as excessive use or presence of water can hamper repair work and cause major gas supply problems.
  73. 73. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains information about natural gas incidents. Explain why it is generally considered better to allow ignited escaping natural gas from a pipe or main to burn rather than extinguishing it. What should be considered if the leak is allowed to continue to burn?
    • 73.
    • - If on fire, allow to burn under protection of hose lines and other safety precautions.
    • - Burning off will prevent the gas from becoming a greater hazard, as unburnt gas cannot be seen, and could spread and re-ignite elsewhere
    • - Allow leak to continue burning, although consider the effects of radiant heat, flame impingement on exposures including pipe work, building and equipment.
    • - Never light escaping gas to locate escape point.
  74. 74. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains information about natural gas incidents. What can be done to prevent the ignition of a leak from a natural gas main?
    • 74.
    • -Look for and prohibit all sources of ignition . This includes vehicles, naked flames, smoking, helicopters, cameras, electrical equipment, or
    • electronic equipment, and devices with electronic switches. Electrical switches should be taped shut to prevent their use; and
    • - Dampen the ground around the site of the gas escape to prevent static electricity igniting the gas
    • - Ensure all sources of ignition are eliminated.
  75. 75. Describe a dust explosion and explain how a dust explosion occurs as outlined in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 75.
    • - A Dust Explosion ‘Is a rapid movement of fire from one dust particle to another. The correct mix of dust and air will form an explosive mixture, similar to that of gas and air.
    • -This rapid fire movement from one particle of dust to another is due to the very high surface area of
    • the particles. Each particle burns very readilybecause O² is amply available and the small mass of each particle is easily consumed.
    • -If the Particles to air mixture is right, the heat from a dust particle burning spreads to the next particle with the speed of an explosion.
    • -In a factory or warehouse, dust accumulates and poses a threat of explosion as long as the dust to air mixture is not too rich or too lean.
    • -If a water jet is directed into a fire where dust is present, this may stir up any dust present and cause a dust explosion 
  76. 76. Describe the four conditions that must occur simultaneously to create a dust explosion as set out in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 76.
    • 1. Combustible solid in the form of dust must be dispersed in the air.
    • 2. Concentration of dust in air must be within the explosive range.
    • 3. An ignition source must be introduced with enough energy and duration to initiate the explosive chain reaction for that particular dust.
    • 4. Explosive chemical reaction must occur in a confined space.
  77. 77. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains information about Dust Explosions. What distinguishes a flash fire from a dust explosion?
    • 77.
    • -  Flash fires occur if conditions 1-3 exist (above).
    • -  Dust fire occurs if conditions 1-4 exist (above)
    • Therefore, a dust explosion is a flash fire that occurs in a confined space, where there is a rapid build-up of excessive pressures.
  78. 78. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual includes information about the occurrence of successive dust explosions in industrial premises. State how dust explosions can occur successively.
    • 78. Successive explosions occur in 2 parts:
    • -The first (pilot) explosion occurs when air-dust mix is ignited. This may not be very violent but sufficient enough to disturb or agitate dust lying on beams, floors and other surfaces.
    • -The second explosion occurs when newly agitated dust is ignited by the first explosion, or by a continuous ignition source such as the overheated machinery. The second explosion can be much greater in intensity.
    •  *This can occur in areas with poor housekeeping that allow large amounts of dust to build up
  79. 79. What precautions should be taken when attending incidents where dust accumulation presents the risk of a dust explosion?
    • 79.
    • - Avoid using jets or sprays that will stir up dust, only use fog at low pressure.
    • - Only use powdered talc, graphite, soda ash or dry sand on metal dust fires.
    • - Avoid handling and disturbing containers, bins or cartons of flammable dust or powder that may create a dust cloud. Cover or carefully drench if on fire before moving them.
    • - Use high expansion foam for min disturbance, attract/absorb dust particles and cool and extinguish fire.
    • - Take care walking around accumulated dust to min disturbance.
    • - Avoid using water, foam, chemical and vapourising liquid systems.
  80. 80. Certain industries use combustible materials that are likely to cause dust explosions. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual list materials that are most likely to cause dust explosions. Name these materials as listed in the manual
    • 80.   FSG CWM PPP
    • - Fertiliser
    • - Spray Painting overspray
    • - Grain
    • - Cotton
    • - Wood
    • - Metal
    • - Paper
    • - Plastic
    • - Panel beating body filler
  81. 81. What are the two basic sources of water supply available to the Fire and Rescue NSW as detailed in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual?
    • 81.
    • - Reticulated water supply both fresh & recycled- Static or open water supply such as rivers, dams, tanks, swimming pools
  82. 82. State and describe the three types of water main as set out in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 82.
    • - Trunk Mains – Supply water from original source to secondary distribution point.
    •  
    • - Distributary Mains – Carry water from secondary point to sub-divided areas like suburbs.
    •  
    • - Reticulation Mains – Feed off distributary mains feeding individual streets and buildings.
  83. 83. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains a section on 'Water Supply'. Several factors affect the flow of the water in the water mains. List the 5 factors
    • 83.
    • • the size of the main;
    • • the internal condition of the main (sedimentation, tuberculosis and encrustation);
    • • the pressure at which the main is working;
    • • the length of the main; and
    • • the fittings attached.
  84. 84. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains a section on 'Water Supply'. Primary Indicator Plates indicate the location of hydrants. What information can firefighters determine from the two sets of numbers marked on Primary Indicator Plates?
    • 84.
    • - The top No. gives distance in metres that the hydrant is from the indicator plate.
    • - Bottom No. gives the size in millimeters of the water main
  85. 85. State the flow rates from the following main sizes:
    a. 100 mm
    b. 150 mm
    c. 200 mm
    d. 250 mm
    e. 300 mm.
    • 85.
    • 100 mm      =       2 220 L/min
    • 150 mm      =       4 500 L/min
    • 200 mm      =       6 720 L/min
    • 250 mm      =     11 220 L/min
    • 300 mm      =     18 000 L/min
  86. 86. Name the three types of hydrants detailed in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 86.        BWS
    • Ball Valve
    • - Used on reticulated water main systems.
    • - Are ‘ball’ and ‘mushroom’ headed spring valves.
    • - Located below ground, attached by T piece and riser from main.
    • - Housed in cast iron pit, concrete surround with hinged iron cover plate marked ‘H’.
    • Wheel Valve & Pillar
    • - Has cast iron spherical water chamber.
    • - Has seating that disc-shaped valve seals against when hand wheel closed.
    • - Operated by hand wheel, operating similar principle to domestic tap.
    • - Located above ground, with FB adaptor fitted. A Stortz is not always attached
    • Screw Valve
    • - Used on reticulated water main systems.
    • - Located below ground, in a brick and concrete pit. Attached to main by hydrant ‘T’.
    • - This type of hydrant has a cast-iron chamber & seating at the base for disc shaped valve.
  87. 87. State the procedure for inspecting and testing a hydrant to detect faults or poor water supply, Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual. When the flow rate is inadequate, whom should this be reported to?
    • 87.  
    • - Ship standpipe, Double delivery or Elbow delivery.
    • - Connect a 1 into 2 breaching to the standpipe.
    • - Connect the hydrant pressure gauge and Akron branch with 26mm nozzle to breaching.
    • - Close the rotary valve of the breaching leading to the branch.- Turn on the hydrant to the required discharge.
    • - Read the pressure gauge to obtain the static pressure of the main.
    • - Open both outlets.
    • - Read the pressure gauge to obtain the running pressure of the main.
    •  
    • * If test reveals drop of 70kpa between static and running pressure, the mains flow is inadequate.  
    • Report this to the local water authority.
  88. 88. What are the hose strap colours of percolating and non-percolating hose, as contained in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual?
    • 88.
    • - Fluorescent Lime Green = Non-Percolating hose.
    • - Fluorescent Pink = Percolating hose.
  89. 89. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains information relevant to shipping. State the six types of fire suppression systems on board ships.
    • 89.    SWISH FC
    • -Steam injection
    • -Water Mains                              
    • -Inert Gas Injection             
    • -Sprinkler    
    • -Halon
    • -Foam                            
    • -Carbon Dioxide Flooding 
  90. 90. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual describes CO2 systems as very efficient for smothering a fire on a ship. List and describe the two types of fixed CO2 systems used on commercial ships.
    • 90.
    • CO2 Systems for fighting Cargo Fires
    • -It can take as much as 20 mins for flaming combustion to occur after a smouldering fire is 
    •  discovered in a ship’s hold.
    • -This delay can give sufficient time to prepare for fighting the fire.
    • -You should first seal the cargo hold.
    • -You should then release several cylinders of the CO2 simultaneously.
    • -This multiple release helps to reduce the O2 level below the rate required to support combustion. 
    •  
    • Total Flooding
    • -The safety of a ship depends on the quick introduction of CO2 gas which also prevents heat from causing the failure of the bulkheads.
    • - Quick release of the extinguishing CO2 agent also prevents heat updraft from the fire carrying away the carbon dioxide, helping to limit the extent of damage to the equipment.
    • - 85% of the required quantity of CO2 should be discharged within two minutes.
    • - If you are attending an incident involving roll on/roll off cargo, attempt to discharge 100% of the  
    •  contents within the 2 minutes.
    • - To avoid the unintentional release of the CO2 gas, you must activate two separate controls:
    • i) One control releases the minimum amount of carbon dioxide required, and
    • ii) The other control operates the stop valve or direction valve.
  91. 91. Explain the advantages of CO2 as part of a ship's fixed fire fighting installation, Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 91.
    • - CO2 leaves most cargos undamaged or affected.
    • - Carried as liquid under pressure and does not require special pumps to apply.
  92. 92. Describe the disadvantages of a CO2 system as part of a ship's fixed fire fighting installation, Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 92.
    • - Cargoes that require a very great reduction of oxygen to eliminate combustion e.g. cotton or that generate their own oxygen e.g celluloid cannot be extinguished by CO2;
    • - Penetrates parts of cargo hold or cargo slowly.
    • - CO2 at its initial release temperature is heavier than air.  The gas will fall to ground, through flooring and may need to build up before having extinguishing effect on fire. (mesh walk ways etc). This may cause a delay in its effect
    • - CO2 gas has little cooling effect, leaving cargo hot allowing for re-ignition later.
  93. 93. State the procedure for opening hold covers and hatches to compartments on ships as described in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 93.
    • - inspect the door for heat and heat damage by feeling it with the back of a gloved hand
    • - Run out 2 hose lines, 1 fog stream to cool door and bulkhead, 2nd for fire attack.
    • - Direct fog branch at centre of door.
    • - Assume crouching position before opening.
    • - Open door slowly, ready to close quickly if necessary.
    • - Protect FF team by sealing the opening with fog as the door is opened.
    • - Attack fire from behind protective fog with spray or jets.
    • - As fire is controlled, advance both teams into compartment for final extinguishment.
  94. 94. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains information relevant to shipping. List six safety considerations for firefighters when attending a fire incident on a ship.
    • 94.
    • - Moving around ship and locating fire will be difficult. Return escape routes will be complicated and dangerous.
    • - Always wear correct PPE, especially gloves for hot bulkheads, railings, walkways.
    • - Always wear SCBA. You will almost always attack a fire on a ship from above
    • - Remember oil is an integral part of a ships engine room and fires may occur in that area.
    • - Beware of electrical cables present everywhere.
    • - S&R measures will be extremely difficult, time consuming, frustrating and exacting.
    • - Maintain concentration to stay orientated at to your vertical and lateral position.
    • - Plan ahead to ensure access to and successful attack of fire area.
    • - You should provide for closed circuit comms for crews fighting the fire below decks
    • - Ensure adequate supplies of Expansion Foam and CO2 is available or organized.
  95. 95. List and describe the rope rescue techniques used in the Fire and Rescue NSW as detailed in Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 95.
    • Top Belay-
    • You reach the high point; anchor the friction device; lower the victim and/or the rescuer to base level; and walk out. 
    •  
    • Top Belay Pick-up-
    • You reach the high point; anchor the friction device; lower the rescuer to midpoint; pick up the victim; lower to the base level; and walk out.

    • Haul Belay-
    • You start at the high point; place the line over the edge; reach the bottom of the drop; and haul the Life/Rescue line to recover the victim and/or rescuer to high point. 
    •  
    • Self Rescue-
    • You start at the high point; attach a friction device to the harness; and
    • descend to the low point. 
    •  
    • Leaning Ladder Belay-
    • You use a standard NSWFB extension ladder from the low point; reach the high point; recover the victim and/or rescuer; and return to the low point.
  96. 96. Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual has a section on 'Rescue'. List eight items of a cordage pack.
    • 96.   KFC GG WELL
    •  
    • -Karibiners x 4;
    • Friction Device (Harpoon) x 1;
    • Pulleys (side gate) x 2;
    • Chest Harness x 1;
    • Full Body Harness x 1;
    • Gloves x 2 pair;
    • Tape Slings x 2;
    • General Purpose Line 1 x 30m;
    • Whistles x 2;
    • Edge Protection (hessian bags);
    • Log Books (Line Usage & Use of Pack record) x 2;
    • Life Rescue Line 1 x 50m
  97. 97. State the procedure for fire protection at an MVA with persons trapped as described in Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 97.
    • - 38mm charged hose line to 400 kpa with Akron spray branch is minimum requirement.
    • - The branch must be hand held by a FireFighter in full turn-out gear; close enough to provide immediate water protection should a fire ignite.
    • - If used, pump should increase to 800 kpa, pump cooling valve opened and branch set to a minimum of 90’ angle of spray.- Appliance must be positioned in a fire safe area 15-30 m from incident.
  98. 98. DELETED
    98. DELETED
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    99. DELETED
  100. 100. Name four methods of removal for a non-ambulant patient as set out in the 'Search and Rescue Section' of Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 100.
    • 1.  Blanket removal
    • 2.  Human crutch
    • 3.  Fore and aft method
    • 4.  Drag method (or Backward drag)
    • 5.  Hand seats (2,3,4 hands)
  101. 101. Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual has a section on 'Motor Vehicle Extrication'. List four signs that indicate a vehicle involved in an accident uses LPG.
    • 101.
    • - Red square fitted in a diamond shape on number plate.
    • - Two fuel filler inlets.
    • - Changeover switch on dashboard.
    • - Presence of an LPG odour.
    • - The hiss of escaping gas.
  102. 102. Describe how foam extinguishes a ‘B’ class fire as set out in Vol 1 the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 102.
    • Foam extinguishes a class B fire by smothering and this action may be aided by the production of an aqueous or polymeric film as the foam contacts the fuel surface.
  103. 103. Name three types of foam producing equipment used in the Fire and Rescue NSW as detailed in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 103.     BEG 
    •  
    • Branches – (low & med expansion)
    • Eductors – (Akron 2120 & 2600 In-Line)
    • Generators – (Angus Turbex High Expansion Faom Generator)
  104. 104. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains information on extinguishing mediums. What equipment is required to make mechanical foam?
    • 104.
    • - Pressurised water supply.
    • - Means of introducing foam concentrate to water stream.
    • - Method of aerating concentrate / water solution.
    • - Hose to deliver the water, solution or foam.
    • - A means of projecting the foam onto the fire.
  105. 105. Name the different eductors used by the Fire and Rescue NSW as described in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 105. 
    • - Akron 2120
    • - Akron 2600 In-Line
  106. 106. What are the expansion ratios of Light Water, and Low, Medium & High expansion foam as listed in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual?
    • 106.
    • Light Water           Below 2:1
    • Low Expansion       Up to 50:1
    • Med Expansion       Between 50:1 and 500:1High Expansion      From 500:1 to 1000:1
  107. 107. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains information on extinguishing mediums. In this section, state what is the definition of foam.
    • 107.
    • ‘Foam is the visible product of foam concentrate, water and air when mixed’
    • How vigorous the solution is agitated, along with amount of air induced controls expansion ratio.
  108. 108. At an emergency incident on a rail line, you need to have a train make an emergency stop. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains information about 'Trains' and sets out the actions that must be taken to signal a train to make an emergency stop. State these actions.
    • 108.
    • - During daytime, wave both arms or coloured cloth vigorously (red cloth preferably)
    • - During nighttime, wave a light vigorously.
  109. 109. Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual section on rescue explains how to protect an accident scene. Detail the requirements of this section
    • 109.
    • When you arrive at the accident scene, you should place NSWFB vehicles in the fend off position (at an angle of 30°). This position helps protect the accident scene from oncoming or following traffic. You should also:
    • • place warning signs and signals in both directions to provide advanced warning to motorists; and
    • • request police assistance for traffic control.
  110. 110. DELETED
    110. DELETED
  111. 111. List five specific problems associated with tunnel fires as detailed in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual in the section on 'Trains'.
    • 111.
    • - Difficult rescue and evacuation situations. - Limited lengths of hose available.
    • - Logistical control of moving FF equipment. - Restricted communications facilities.
    • - Excessive heat.
    • - Thick smoke.
  112. 112. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains information about electricity. Describe ‘Ground Gradient’.
    112.  When a live wire lies on the ground, the energy released fans out through the ground from the point of contact. The effect is similar to that when a pebble is dropped into calm water and waves or ripples roll out from the point of contact. As with the ripples in the water, the strength of the voltage diminishes as the distance from the point of contact increases. The effect of this voltage drop is called ground gradient. If a person walks within this area, the difference in voltage of the 2 points of contact is the electric shock that will be received.
  113. 113. Describe step potential as detailed in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 113.
    • A downed live wire touching the ground creates a pool of electricity. If you place one foot near the point of ground contact within the electric pool, and place the other foot a step away, then you become a conductor for electricity. The voltage passing through your body will be the difference in voltage at the two contact points. To avoid the danger of step potential, stay at least 8 m from the point of contact of the live source to the ground.
  114. 114. Describe touch potential as detailed in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 114.
    • You are faced with the same situation as described above in the Step Potential example. If you place your hand on the energised source with your feet at some distance from the source, you can become a live conductor and receive a shock. The voltage passing through your body will be the difference in voltage at the two contact points.
  115. 115. DELETED
    115. DELETED
  116. 116. DELETED
    116. DELETED
  117. 117. DELETED
    117. DELETED
  118. 118. DELETED
    118. DELETED
  119. 119. At a rescue incident your first responsibility is to yourself and your fellow rescuers. List another six precautions and actions you should observe if you are the rescuer at a MVA as per Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 119.
    • 1. Wear protective clothing, a minimum standard includes eye protection, long sleeved work shirts, trousers, boots, gloves, and over trousers;
    • 2. Use care when operating tools and hydraulic equipment, your body position is important. Hydraulic equipment tends to turn while being operated as it seeks the path of least resistance. This movement can pin your body or limbs;
    • 3. Anticipate the movement of the tools: do not stand between the tool and the vehicle, and always watch your hands and fingers when operating hydraulic equipment and other tools. Beware of a tool reaction should it slip during the operation;
    • 4. assemble and operate tools according to NSWFB instructions;
    • 5. Sweep broken glass and other sharp objects clear of the immediate scene: these items can cause injury if you kneel on them. Sweep them clear or cover them with a canvas sheet;
    • 6. stabilise a vehicle before you work on or under it; and
    • 7. Lift and carry according to Workplace Health & Safety guidelines e.g. use the two-person lift
  120. 120. DELETED
    120. DELETED
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    121. DELETED
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    122. DELETED
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  124. 124. List the seven factors that affect wildfire behaviour contained in Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 124.   WARF FAS
    •  
    • - Wind direction and velocity.
    • - Air temperature and sunlight.
    • - Relative humidity.
    • - Fuel moisture content.
    • - Fuel quantity, type, distribution & arrangement.
    • - Atmospheric stability.
    • - Slope and aspect.
  125. 125. List the four main tactical methods of dealing with wildfires contained in Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 125.
    • - Direct attack.
    • - Parallel method.
    • - Indirect method or back-burning.
    • - Property protection.
  126. 126. State the Direct Attack method of fighting a wildfire as detailed in Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 126.
    • - Work is applied directly to the fire edge, which becomes the established control line. - This may be achieved by applying water, beating, pushing burning fuel into the fire smothering with earth and throwing in any logs or sticks which might lie across the edge.
    • - This is the most common strategy used by NSWFB.
  127. 127. State the Parallel Method of fighting a wildfire as detailed in Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 127.
    • - A fire line is constructed parallel to, & just far enough from the fire edge, to allow firefighters & equip to work effectively away from heat & smoke.
    • - The strip of fuel between the fire and the control line is normally burnt out a.s.a.p. after fire line is constructed.
    • - The basic principle is to keep fairly close to the edge of a fire, but latitude is allowed for, dropping back to avoid intense heat and for maneuvering to by-pass obstructions.
    • - In practice, this distance may vary from a few metres to 50 m or more.
  128. 128. State the Indirect or Back-Burning method of fighting a wildfire as detailed in Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 128.
    • - Involves burning back from natural barriers, roads, fire breaks, trails or fire lines.
    • - Crews drop back a considerable distance from a fire front, burning out un-burnt area between fire break and the fire, creating effective barrier.
    • - Generally delay until fire line is substantially completed and conditions are favourable for backburning.
  129. 129. Establishing a fire line using hand tools can be a difficult physical task. State the 'Step- Up Method' as detailed in Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 129.
    • - Crews spread along a proposed line or trail so each person has a section to complete.
    • - When an individual reaches the end of the work available to them, they call out ‘Step up’,
    • - This is repeated along the line, and each FF steps forward till he/she finds fresh work.
  130. 130. Establishing a fire line using hand tools can be a difficult physical task. State the 'One- Lick Method' as detailed in Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 130.
    • - Used when a variety of hand tools are needed, e.g. axe, brush hook, mcleod tool and rake
    • - As crews move forward, each does work appropriate to their tool.
    • - Fallen limbs, shrubs and bushes are cleared first. Then ground fuels such as grass etc.
    • - Then rakers leave the line in a bare condition.
  131. 131. What effect does wind strength have on fire intensity of a wildfire and the speed with which it travels according to Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual?
    • 131.
    • Wind strength is critical - strong winds will increase the rate of spread by:
    • - Bending flames forward, drying and pre-heating un-burnt fuels.
    • - Supplying additional oxygen to the fire.
    • - Carrying burning embers (brands) ahead, starting spot fires.
  132. 132. Explain the term spot fire, as described in Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual in the section on 'Rural Fire Suppression'.
    • 132.
    • - Spot fires occur when sparks or pieces of burning or smouldering material are projected beyond the perimeter of a bushfire and starts new fires.
    • - The range can vary from a few meters to over 20 kms depending on fire intensity during extreme weather conditions.
  133. 133. List six types of locks they you may encounter on entering a premises as per Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 133.
    • 1. padlocks;
    • 2. night-latches;
    • 3. mortice locks;
    • 4. deadlocks;
    • 5. rivers' locks: these locks secure doors at two or more points; and
    • 6. electronic locks: these locks use card keys with an encoded magnetic chip. The card is placed in a slot in the wall near the door.
  134. 134. Describe and explain what is considered to be an important method of heat transfer in a bushfire or wildfire as described in Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual
    • 134.    RADIANT HEAT
    • -Effects of Radiant heat on fuels around a fire are an important aspect of fire behaviour and ROS.
    • -Radiant heat will decrease with distance from the heat source, however leaves, trees and ground 
    • fuels can be significantly pre-heated causing them to ignite easier.
    • -Radiant heat effects can be magnified by slope and the convection current of smoke, as flames
    • bend close to surface and heat rises.
  135. 135. According to Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual, state the purpose of a drip torch.
    • 135.
    • To ignite ground litter for the purpose of back-burning or hazard reduction Operations.
  136. 136. State how radiation plays an important part in the spread of bushfires according to Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 136.
    • - The heat from a Bushfire raises the temperature of neighbouring fuel causing its moisture content to evaporate. The fuel then ignites and in turn heats other neighbouring fuel and so on.
    • - Radiant heat transfer decreases with the distance from the heat source
  137. 137. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual has a section on 'Flammable Liquids'. Explain the following physical properties of flammable liquids:
    a. specific gravity 
    b. vapour density.
    • 137.
    • Specific gravity
    • - If a liquid is not soluble in water, its Specific Gravity determines whether {SG of Fresh water = 1} that liquid floats or sinks in water                                            
    •                                               
    • SG = Density of Liquid / Density of Water    (SG<1 = floats, petrol)

    • Vapour density -      
    • -Determines whether vapours given off by flammable liquids have a {VD of air = 1}  greater density than that of air, therefore sinking in air and accumulating at ground level. A VD of less than 1 would rise in air   

    VD = Density of Vapour / Density of Air
  138. 138. Explain the following terms as contained in the 'Flammable Liquids' section of Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual: Melting point, Boiling point
    • 138.
    • Melting Point - A definite temperature at which certain solids melt and turn to liquid. 
    •  
    • Boiling Point - A definite temperature where if more heat is applied to a liquid, it will eventually begin to boil. The closer a liquid approaches its boiling point,  
    • the more vapour it gives off and the greater is the possibility of ignition.
  139. 139. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual has a section on 'Flammable Liquids'. Explain what is meant by the term 'Flammable Range'.
    • 139.
    • It defines upper and lower limits (UEL & LEL) of concentrations of vapour/ air mixture that can be ignited. This range can show when flammable liquid vapour concentrations are too lean or rich (above or below the flammable range).
  140. 140. Spillages of flammable liquids during transport present hazards to firefighters, the public and the environment. List the priorities in incidents involving road and rail tankers as set out in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 140.    PEP CD
    •  
    • - Protect life and property.
    • - Extinguish any fire or prevent it from spreading.
    • - Prevent or minimize further spillage.
    • - Contain spilled product for subsequent removal.
    • - Drains are to be protected from spilled product entering them
  141. 141. In the section on 'Flammable Liquids' in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual, bulk storage tanks are described by the roof they have and the classification of the product it contains. Name the four common types of bulk storage tanks.
    • 141.
    • Type A - Non-pressure fixed roof with atmospheric vents.
    • Type B - Non-pressure fixed roof with internal floating decks.
    • Type C - Pressure fixed roof.
    • Type D - Floating roof.
  142. 142. Describe an 'Oil Boil-over' as detailed in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 142.
    • ‘Occurs when heat from the fire of burning oil in a tank unites with water at the bottom of the tank to form steam. This steam increases the volume of oil, and oil boils over’. This happens because some oils form a heat wave as they burn.
  143. 143. The section on 'Flammable Liquids' in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual talks about an oil boil-over. What four conditions must be present simultaneously for a boil over to occur?
    • 143.
    • - Water must be present.
    • - Oil must contain free carbon.
    • - Burning oil must produce a heat wave.
    • - Oil must be viscous enough to form a froth when the heat wave hits the water and turns the water into steam.
  144. 144. Describe a 'Slop-over' as detailed in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 144.
    • - Occurs in oils with flash points below 61’C,
    • - Water applied to the surface of these oils sinks without turning to steam
    • - The water has little cooling effect, and is unlikely to extinguish the fire.
    • - Water that enters the tank and sinks to the bottom can cause oil to overflow.
  145. 145. State the differences between slop-over and boil over as contained in the section on 'Flammable Liquids' in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 145.
    • - Slop over is less violent and does not throw as much oil, nor as far.
    • - Water fog/spray usually extinguishes fires in the compound caused by Slop Over.
    • - Sometimes Slop over can be prevented by removing sufficient liquid from the tank to increase the ullage space, (Ullage is distance between top of liquid and top of tank).
  146. 146. The section on 'Flammable Liquids' in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains a special caution about alcohol burning in air. What does this caution refer to?
    • 146.
    • Alcohol burning in an abundance of air has a colourless flame, often heat is the only indication of the presence of fire. Be sure fire is extinguished even if flame can not be seen.
  147. 147. The section on 'Flammable Liquids' in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual includes information about 'Bulk Storage Tanks'. Why are empty tanks potentially dangerous and what can be done to reduce this danger?
    • 147.
    • -The vapour and air mixtures in empty tanks can be within flammable limits, therefore tanks 
    • presumed to be empty can be dangerous.
    • -This danger can be substantially reduced if the tanks are steamed and ventilated to remove all
    • traces of flammable liquid.
  148. 148. The section on 'Flammable Liquids' in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains a special caution about fires where foam is not suitable as an extinguishing media. What does this caution refer to?
    • 148.
    • Foams are not suitable for:
    • - Water-reactive fires.
    • - Three dimensional fires (such as leaking flanges).
    • - Rapid-flowing flammable liquid fires (unless flow is dammed, as foam doesn’t flow as quickly as flammable liquids).
  149. 149. Describe the use of water as an extinguishing media on fires involving water soluble liquids and non-soluble liquids as set out in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 149.
    • Water Soluble Liquids
    • If flammable liquid is soluble in water (alcohols, acids, phenols), it can be diluted to the point of extinguishment. The practicality of this depends on space for additional water.
    •  
    • You can use water, but must be applied as a fog.

    • Non-Soluble Liquids
    • If a non water-soluble flammable liquid is denser than water, you can smother the fire by applying water that will create a layer floating on the liquid. Most flammable liquids however are not water-soluble and will not dissolve. The most likely case is that a liquid will be less dense than water and will not dissolve in it.
  150. 150. List four things to bear in mind when using water as an extinguishing media on flammable liquid fires as contained in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 150.
    • - Do not use jets as they will only spread fire.
    • - If the flammable liquid has flash point below that of the water temperature, extinguishing the fire by cooling is not possible.
    • - If you use water to extinguish a flammable liquid fire, seal it with foam where practicable to prevent the escape of vapours and prevent re-ignition.
    • - Be careful to avoid boil-over in fires involving heavy combustible liquids such as fuel oils. Boil-over may occur if water is added to these liquids.
  151. 151. The section on 'Hazmat' in Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains information from the Fire Brigades Act (1989) because the Fire and Rescue NSW is the lead combat agency for all land based hazardous materials incidents in NSW. Define 'Hazardous Material' and 'Hazardous Material Incident’.
    • 151.
    • Hazardous Material – Anything that, when produced, stored, moved, used or otherwise dealt with, without adequate safe guards to prevent it from escaping, may cause injury or death or damage to property.
    • Hazardous Material Incident – Means an actual, or impending land-based spillage, or other escape of hazardous material that caused or threatens to cause injury or death or damage to property
  152. 152. List and describe the three ways in which a liquid could penetrate the material from which protective clothing is made as contained in Volume 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 152.
    • Permeation
    • Process by which a hazardous liquid could move through a given material at a molecular level. The process usually occurs by
    • (i) absorption of the liquid into the outer surfaces of the material,
    • (ii) diffusion of the chemical through the material,
    • (ii) leakage of the chemical from the inner surface of the material
    • Penetration
    • Flow of hazardous material through zippers, stitched seams, pinholes or other imperfections in the material. Likely to increase potential of penetration at excessively hot/cold temperatures.
    • Degradation
    • Physical destruction or decomposition of material, due to exposure to chemicals, continued use or ambient conditions (storage in sunlight). Visible signs are charring, shrinking, dissolving or discolouration of the material.
  153. 153. What is the 'HazMat Action Guide', as described in the section on 'Hazmat' in Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual?
    • 153.
    • HAG Form is carried on all appliances, to facilitate the necessary information being relayed to the CommCen. It has facility on back of the form to mark off HAG numbers relayed to the IC from the CommCen. This information can then be used to initiate the incident procedures as seen fit.
  154. 154. What three principles should be kept in mind when you are entering a premise as per Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual?
    • 154.
    • - enter without undue delay;
    • - enter with the minimum of structural damage; and
    • - enter so as to provide access to as much of the building as possible.
  155. 155. List four considerations when firefighters are to enter the combat zone at a hazmat incident as detailed in Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 155.
    • - Always assume worst substance until proven otherwise, wear max available protection.
    • - Maintain teams of minimum of two members.
    • - Remain upwind of material where possible and avoid any contact with leaked substances.
    • - DO NOT enter the Hot Zone until a back-up crew and decontamination are in place.
  156. 156. Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains information about the 'Three zone System. List and describe the three zones.
    • 156.
    • Hot Zone – Area that exits inside the ‘Hot Zone’ barrier tape and designates the area into which only authorized, fully protected personnel may enter.
    • Warm Zone – Area that provides buffer from contaminate and personnel. Should be marked by a physical means, and contains decontamination zone, staging area where equipment is laid out, and where back-up crews await entry.
    • Cold Zone
    • Area of limited access to personnel involved in the support of working crews. Should contain Incident Command point, and the dedicated pump for decontamination purposes.
    •  
    • Past this zone is the Incident Site where the public, media and non-involved personnel are allowed access, the Incident Site is Police responsibility.
  157. 157. Certain quantities of dangerous goods being transported by road or rail must display an 'Emergency Information Panel’. List four items of information contained within the emergency Information Panel as contained in Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 157.
    • - Chemical or technical name of the substance.
    • - Dangerous goods class label (Diamond), shows principle danger of load carried.
    • - UN No, used in conjunction with ‘Emergency Response Guide Book’ or DataChem.
    • - HazChem Code, indicating initial actions required during incident.
    • - Specialist advice, name of manufacturer, carrier, telephone No. for specialist assistance.
    • - Emergency services telephone No. ‘000’
  158. 158. Where is the Emergency information Panel located on road vehicles and rail cars as described in Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual?
    • 158.
    • Road Vehicles - Fixed to both sides and rear.
    • Rail Cars - Both sides.
  159. 159. Describe the two broad types, or categories, of decontamination used by the Fire and Rescue NSW as contained in Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 159.
    • Initial – Carried out at the scene to enable safe removal of personnel from protective suits and to prevent further spread of contaminants. 
    •  
    • Final – Carried out under controlled conditions at the HAZMAT Response Unit in order that contaminated equipment be returned to service.
  160. 160. List the five members of a full decontamination team as detailed in Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 160.
    • - Decontamination Sector Commander (DSC)
    • - Wash Operator     (WO)
    • - Wash Assistant    (WA)
    • - Disrobe Assistant  (DA)
    • - Pump Operator      (PO)
  161. 161. List four methods of decontamination as detailed in Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 161.
    • - Washing with water.
    • - Wash with water and detergent.
    • - Neutralising.
    • - Brushing off dust particles.
    • - Scrubbing with brush.
  162. 162. The section 'Attacking the Fire' in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains information about general safe working practices. Describe the three safe working practices when using a jet of water from a hose line.
    • 162.
    • - Don’t play jet of water directly overhead, falling water may bring down debris which may be dangerously hot.
    • - Don’t direct jet into loose matter like hot ashes, molten metal or slag, as water turns to steam it expands, scattering hot material around dangerously.
    • - Avoid stirring up dusts accumulated in large amounts if ignition source near by.
  163. 163. The section 'Attacking the Fire' in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains information about general safe working practices. Describe two safe working practices related to ventilating a fire.
    • 163.
    • - Ventilate confined fires from above and not from below. Sudden influx of air below or at fire level into atmosphere heavily charged with hot smoke and gases can cause backdraught.
    • - Keep charged hose lines available to deal with ignition of evacuating smoke & gases.
  164. 164. DELETED
    164. DELETED
  165. 165. State the differences between primary and secondary search as contained in the 'Search and Rescue' section of Breathing Apparatus in Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 165.
    • - A ‘Primary Search’ is Immediate, Rapid and Systematic. RIS. You may perform Additional size up, Ventilation and Salvage
    • - A ‘Secondary Search’ is carried out after the fire is under control, is Slow, Deliberate and Systematic. SDS. You may perform Ventilation, Salvage and Overhaul.
  166. 166. During secondary search what operations are performed as set out in Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual?
    • 166.
    • A ‘Secondary Search’ involves the thorough searching of the building, carrying out ventilation, salvage and overhaul operations to assist with the search of occupants.
  167. 167. DELETED
    167. DELETED
  168. 168. List five symptoms of heat exhaustion as described in the 'Respiratory Hazards' section of Breathing Apparatus in Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual?
    • 168.
    • - Dizziness.
    • - Nausea.
    • - Lassitude (tiredness, lethargy).
    • - Abdominal discomfort.
    • - Burning sensation of skin.
  169. 169. List the Safe Working Practices for a Stored Pressure Water Extinguisher as stated in the Firefighters Training Manual Volume 1.
    • 169.
    • • ensure that you have a safe exit path before you use the extinguisher;
    • • operate the extinguisher upwind from the fire;
    • • operate the extinguisher from its maximum range;
    • • test the extinguisher with a short burst before approaching the fire; and
    • • test the extinguisher with a short burst on the fire.
  170. 170. What information is contained on the yellow BA tally fitted to a PDU as shown in Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual?
    • 170.
    • - Station No.
    • - Rank of wearer.
    • - Surname of wearer.
    • - Cylinder pressure.
    • - Time In (recorded immediately before placing tally in control board)
  171. 171. DELETED
    171. DELETED
  172. 172. DELETED
    172. DELETED
  173. 173. DELETED
    173. DELETED
  174. 174. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual Has a section on train fires. What two points need to be considered regarding train fires?
    • 174.
    • - on diesel locomotives, ensure that the engines have stopped and the battery isolation switch is open;
    •  
    • - On electric locomotives and multiple passenger units operating from overhead live electricity (OLE), ensure that all the pantographs have been lowered and the isolation switch is open.
  175. 175. What four points must be considered when making forced entry to a building as contained in the 'Gaining Entry' section of Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual?
    • 175.
    • - The most suitable point of entry;
    • - The safety of personnel and appliances;
    • - The damage must be kept to a minimum; and
    • - The procedure must be carried out with rescue in mind.
  176. 176. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual talks about possible building collapse. State why it is necessary to reduce the volume of water that can build up on floors during firefighting operations.
    • 176.
    • Water from branches can weigh several tones, and when merchandise and equipment is already stacked there, the floors may be loaded beyond their capacity, weakening floors and supports. Water should be removed asap.
  177. 177. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual indicates that when safety factors preclude a manned attack or when the quantity of water required makes it impractical to use hand held hoses, monitors can be used. List three advantages of monitors in these circumstances.
    • 177.
    • - Deliver large streams of water.
    • - Operated by one person.
    • - Can be left unattended while operating.
  178. 178. What are the four stream patterns used to combat various types of fires by the Fire and Rescue NSW as listed in the section 'Fire Fighting Equipment' in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual?
    • 178.
    • - Spray                      
    • - Fog              
    • - Solid Jet     
    • - Hollow Jet
  179. 179. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains a section on 'Extinguishing Mediums'. When firefighting, where should you not direct a jet of water?
    • 179.
    • - Directly overhead
    • - Onto loose matter such as hot ashes or molten metal
    • - At flammable powders, or large quantities of dusts- Onto live electrical wires and equipment
  180. 180. List three characteristics of spray patterns that make them advantageous for firefighting as set out the section on 'Extinguishing Mediums' in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 180.
    • - Rapid heat absorption.
    • - Wider coverage area of burning material.
    • - Can form heat protective barriers for branch operators.
  181. 181. List five points to consider as set out in the section 'Salvage Equipment', in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual for inspection and cleaning of ladders.
    • 181.
    • - Damage to strings, trussing and rungs.
    • - Deterioration of ladder finish.
    • - Tightness of holding bolts, nuts, screws and rivets.
    • - Free and correct operation of pawls, tripping devices and pulleys.
    • - Condition of hauling line, including splices and hooks.
  182. 182. List five procedures to be followed when positioning a ladder as detailed in the section on 'Salvage Equipment' in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 182.
    • - Place heel of ladder parallel to wall on firm surface.
    • - Set ladder at safe working angle (Position feet 25% of vertical height of ladder from wall).
    • - Place both strings of the head of the ladder firmly against wall for max stability.
    • - Place head of ladder into openings and to one side for max working space.
    • - If window/opening is narrow, place ladder against wall adjacent to opening.
    • - Extend ladder high enough so FF’s can step from ladder while holding on.
    • - If smoke or flame issuing, position ladder on windward side of the opening
  183. 183. Water is the major firefighting medium adopted by the Fire and Rescue NSW. State the characteristics of water when applied to fire as outlined in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 183.
    • - Water requires large amount of heat to change into steam.
    • - When water converts to steam, it occupies 1700 times it’s original volume
    • - Water has a greater capacity for absorbing heat than any other common ext. agent.
    • - The greater the exposed surface area of the water, the more rapidly it will absorb heat.
    • - Applying water, converting to steam will absorb enough heat to reduce material below ignition temperature.
  184. 184. Smoke spread in Multi-Storey Buildings can be dangerous. Outline how smoke travel can effect evacuations
    • 184.
    • A fire in high rise buildings carries a danger to occupants from heat and smoke. Smoke issuing from lift shafts, air conditioning ducts, stairwells, and service shafts (plumbing or electrical) that are not properly sealed, can severely disrupt evacuation and ventilation in high rise buildings because of the smoke issuing from these areas. These shafts can create an upward draft of smoke. This causes a phenomenon known as the stack effect.
  185. 185. List three types of monitors used in the Fire and Rescue NSW.
    • 185.  H.A.T.T
    •            
    • - Hoenig        
    • - Apollo Ground Monitor    
    • - Terminator             
    • - Titan
  186. 186. What are the three sizes of stacked tip nozzles?
    • 186.
    • - 26mm                     
    • - 29mm
    • - 32mm
  187. 187. Aircraft fuel may be contained in various types of tanks. What are the four main types of fuel tanks outlined in Vol 1 Firefighters Training Manual ‘Aircraft’?
    • 187.   F.A.I.R 
    •                        
    • - Flexible                   
    • - Auxiliary                 
    • - Integral
    • - Rigid           
  188. 188. In relation to aircraft what are the three main types, as listed in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual Aircraft section?
    • 188.
    • - Civil                         
    • - Military
    • - Helicopters (Civil & Military)
  189. 189. List five points to consider when looking for hidden fires at a scene, as detailed in the section on ‘Overhaul’ in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 189.
    • - Materials that are discoloured.
    • - Paint that has peeled.
    • - Smoke emitting from cracks.
    • - Plaster that has cracked.
    • - Wallpaper that has become dried and cracked.
  190. 190. When the evidence of the cause of the fire has been properly preserved, what methods can be used to clean up the debris as detailed in the section on ‘Waste Containment and Disposal’ of the Firefighters Training Manual?
    • 190.
    • - Remove charred material to prevent possibility of re-ignition & help reduce loss from smoke damage
    • - Separate and clear away un-burnt materials from debris.
    • - Use debris sheets to carry material outside, placed not to interfere with public. - It is poor practice to throw materials out of windows or onto public footpaths.
  191. 191. List five hazards that you may encounter while fighting a fire on Naval Ships, as detailed in the Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 191.
    • - Steam drenching.
    • - Aircraft fires.
    • - Fires in electrical equipment.
    • - Explosive ordinance.
    • - Gas cylinders.
  192. 192. List two factors that will affect the likely spread of fire to exposures as listed in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 192.
    • - Temperature of fire.
    • - Shielding to adjacent premises.
    • - Height of structures.
    • - Wind direction.      
    • - Space between structures.
  193. 193. List three considerations that should be given to assessing the probability of a wall collapse as detailed in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 193.
    • - Apparent age of building.
    • - Condition of mortar.
    • - Intensity of fire.
    • - Walls that are relatively thin in relation to their height.
  194. 194. List the three types of construction of synthetic fibre rope in general use, as detailed in Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual 2.
    • 194.
    • 1.Three Strand Hawser-Laid
    • 2. Plaited
    • 3. Kernmantle
  195. 195. List the effects produced by the use of water sprays as per Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 195.
    • - Can cool surface of burning liquid.
    • - Can displace oxygen from the fire, extinguishing by smothering.
    • - Converts to steam and provides additional smothering blanket.
    • - Dilutes flammable liquids miscible with water (alcohols etc).
    • - Emulsifies the surface of immiscible flammable liquids forming temporary layer that prevents the escape of flammable vapours.
  196. 196. According to Vol 2 of the Firefighter Training Manual, Topic 5, Section 1, a vehicle can make a good anchor if you anchor your line to the most appropriate part of the vehicle. List four points that you should be sure to carry out prior to using a vehicle as an anchor point.
    • 196.
    • - Put brakes on.
    • - Engage the gear.
    • - Chock the wheels.
    • - Remove the keys from the ignition.
  197. 197. According to Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual, list six types of standard techniques of extrication used to effect immediate release at motor vehicle accidents.
    • 197.
    • - Roof flap.
    • - Inverted door opening.
    • - Inverted ramming.
    • - Dash roll.
    • - Forced door opening.
    • - Cross ramming and spreading.
  198. 198. According to Vol 2 of the Firefighters Training Manual Topic 5 Section 2 at a motor vehicle accident, fuel spills pose special hazards. List five actions and precautions you should take when you arrive at the scene
    • 198.
    • - Deal with spilled fuel immediately.
    • - Cover pools of flammable liquid with foam blanket, to prevent vapours escaping. Keep the foam blanket in place throughout the operation
    • - Carefully plug leaking fuel. Do this under the protection of a hose line.
    • - Remove all unnecessary personnel from the area until fuel hazard has passed.
    • - Be aware that a very small amount of fuel can present a high risk.
    • - Request fire protection if none is present when you arrive. e.g. Salvage rescue vehicle
  199. 199. Explain Avtag as per the glossary in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual
    • 199.
    • - A type of kerosene with a flash point of -20° C. It has similar characteristics to gasoline
  200. 200. When fighting a ship fire, stability of the vessel is a major consideration of firefighters. The Firefighters Training Manual Vol 1 list five points that can effect a ships stability during firefighting operations. List these Points.
    • 200.
    • - water in an outer compartment of the ship will result in asymmetric loading and cause a list;
    • - added water in the upper deck compartments will add top-weight and reduce stability;
    • - partially flooding a compartment will create a free surface effect;
    • - completely flooding a compartment low in the ship increases the righting forces, and a free surface is created while the compartment is filling; and
    • - loose water in a compartment must be removed as soon as possible.
  201. 201. Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual contains information about LPG. How is a LPG cylinder labelled?
    • 201.
    • Cylinders and tanks that contain LPG display a hazard class label. This is a red diamond with the words flammable gas. This classification complies with Class 2 labelling of dangerous goods.
  202. 202. Explain Avcat as per the glossary in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 202.
    • - A type of kerosene with a flash point of above 65° C, specially distilled for use in naval aircraft turbine engines
  203. 203. Explain Avgas as per the glossary in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    203. - Type of aviation spirit. Flash point -40° C or slightly higher. Used in piston engines.
  204. 204. Explain Avtur as per the glossary in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 204.
    • - A type of aviation kerosene with a flash point above 37.8° C. Finely filtered paraffin forturbine engines.
  205. 205. Explain brisonce as per the glossary in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 205.
    • - The ability to hit so fast that things cannot move out of the way.
  206. 206. Explain deflagation as per the glossary in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual.
    • 206.
    • - Sudden and rapid combustion in which the flame speed is less than the velocity of
    • sound in the gaseous products.
  207. 207. What is miscibility when referring to liquids as per the glossary in Vol 1 of the Firefighters Training Manual?
    • 207.
    • The ability of liquids to mix with each other.

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