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what's the largest organ in the body?
what's the functions of the integumentary system?
- -regulates body temp
- -retards water loss from deeper tissue
- -houses sensory receptors
- -protective covering
The skin includes two distinctive layers. what are they?(top to bottom)
epidermis: composed? what are the layers?
- top to bottom
- -stratum corneum
- -stratum spinosum
- -stratum basale
thicker and contains connective tissure that has collagenous and elastic fibers, epithelial tissue, smooth muscle tissue, nervous tissue, and blood.
what's underneath the dermis? composed?
- subcutaneous layer.
- masses of loose connective and adipose tissure that bind the skin to the underlying organs
what happens in the stratum basale? which layer and how "deep"
cells divide and grow and older epidermal cells are pushed away.
what are the older cells called?
keratinocytes. (when hardening, it's called keratinization)
what's the stratum corneum?
layers of tough, tightly packed dead cells that accumulate in the outer epidermis.
how are fingerprints formed?
because of the dermal papillae passing between the ridges causes the boundary between the epidermis and dermis to be uneven.
what's the reticular region of the dermis?
- dense irregular connective tissue
- collagenous and elastic fibres so your skin has resilience.
name the 4 accessory organs of the skin.
hair follicles, sebaceous glands, nails, sweat glands
where does the hair NOT show up?
palms, soles, lips, nipples and part of external reproductive organs.
what's a hair follicle?
tubelike depression where each hair develops
how are epidermal cells nourished?
from dermal blood
what's the hair bulb?
where skin cells are compressed and keratin is added.
where's the shaft?
the part above the epidermis
how does color occur?
b/c of melanin
what's the purpose of the sebaceous gland?
secretes an oily mixture of fatty material and cellular debris called sebum.
what causes goose bumps?
arrector pili muscles
what's the purpose of the nails?
what does each nail consist of?
a nail plate that overlies a surface of the skin called nail bed.
what the whitish moon-shaped part called? why's it there?
lunula. that's where most active growing occurs.
how does a nail grow and how long?
mitosis in the stratum germinativum. rate of 0.5-1.5 mm per week
skin gland consists?
tiny tube that originates as a ball-shaped coil in the deeper dermis or superficial subcutaneous layer
eccrine gland produce....
axillary regions and groin and connect to hair follicles.
what's another word for skin cancer?
what are the three types of skin cancers
- 1. squamous cell carcinoma
- 2. basal cell carcinoma
- 3. malignant melanoma
- sudden hair loss.
- caused by hair follicles which stop producing
- male pattern baldness
- occurs in adolescence.
- sebaceous glands become plugged with sebum, skin cells and bacteria.
- pustules form and creates secondary infections.
*treated with benzoyl peroxide products or accutane
fungal infection which forms ringworms, athlete's foot, jock itch or nail fungus.
To get rid: keep area dry and apply topical anti-fungal treatments
- made from your cells.
- caused by the papilloma virus
- form a benign growth
Remove by freezing, drying or lazer.
- chronic inflammation of the skin
- scaly plaques due to over growth of under lying skin
a symptom of an underlying condition