Bacterial Physiology

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Author:
kris10leejmu
ID:
192143
Filename:
Bacterial Physiology
Updated:
2013-01-19 17:39:08
Tags:
Microbiology One
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Description:
Microbiology
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  1. What are the essential nutrients for bacteria?
    • carbohydrates
    • protein
    • lipids
    • water
    • inorganic salts
    • trace materials
  2. What is the main source of energy for bacteria?
    carbohydrates
  3. What are the inorganic salts?
    • P
    • S
    • Mg
  4. What are the trace minerals?
    • Fe
    • Ca
  5. What are the factors that affect bacterial growth?
    • temperature
    • gas requirements
    • pH
    • osmotic pressure
  6. Bacterial enzymes are _____.
    proteins
  7. Low temperatures _____ enzyme activity.
    decrease
  8. High temperatures _____ proteins.
    denature
  9. Which bacteria are cold-loving (0-30 degrees C)?
    psychrophiles
  10. Which bacteria are the most pathogenic (20 - 40 degrees C)?
    mesophiles
  11. Which bacteria are heat-loving (40-80 degrees C)?
    thermophiles
  12. Define aerobic.
    require free oxygen
  13. Define anaerobic.
    grow only in absence of oxygen
  14. Define facultative?
    grow in absence or presence of oxygen
  15. Define microerophilic.
    grow best in concentrations of oxygen that are lower than that of air
  16. What is the optimum pH for most bacteria?
    6.5 - 7.5
  17. Are bacterial cell membranes semipermeable?
    yes
  18. How does water pass through a cell?
    in and out freely
  19. Exposure to a hypertonic solution causes _____ of a bacterial cell.
    crenation
  20. Exposure to a hypotonic solution causes _____ of a bacterial cell.
    lysis
  21. What type of bacterial reproduction does bacteria have?
    asexual
  22. Describe binary fission.
    • cell increases in size, elongates
    • splits down the middle
    • separates into two new cells
    • nuclear and cellular materials are divided between the two
  23. Under the right conditions, how long does it take for bacteria to reach adult size and divide?
    15 - 30 minutes
  24. When bacteria are introduced into a medium, they grow in four phases.  What are the phases?
    • lag phase
    • logarithmic phase
    • stationary phase
    • death or decline phase
  25. Describe the lag phase.
    • when first inoculated
    • do not immediately "take off"
    • need to adjust to the medium, temperature, environment
  26. Describe the logarithmic phase.
    • population of bacteria is doubling at regular intervals
    • cell division rate greatly exceeds the death rate
    • cells produced are young, viable, and show the most typical characteristics
  27. Describe the stationary phase.
    • growth rate levels off as nutrients are exhausted
    • growth rate equals death rate
    • bacterial cells are most resistant during this phase
  28. Describe the decline phase.
    • death rate exceeds reproductive rate
    • due to depletion of nutrients
    • presence of toxic products of metabolism

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