send immune system cells and antibodies to wound site
What is the fluid part of blood called?
What is the fluid part of blood responsible for?
fighting pathogens, including cancer
What does the heart do?
pump blood to move it around the body
carry the oxygenated, nutrient rich blood from the heart to your tissues
responsible for the diffusion or passive movement of oxygen and nutrients into the tissue AND movement of CO2 and other waste from tissues
What makes capillary's job so easy?
it's much thinner than arteries or veins
What happens under your skin when you get a bruise?
you have broken some capillaries in that area and blood collects there until it's healed
What do veins do?
return deoxygenated, nutrient depleted blood back to the heart
Where are blood cells made?
bone marrow from stem cells
Where is the most active bone marrow in an adult?
thick bones like femur or tibia
What do red blood cells do?
carry oxygen to tissues and carbon dioxide away from tissues
What do white blood cells do?
carry out immune system functions
What makes red blood cells RED and what does it do?
hemoglobin protein; binds it to oxygen
Which white blood cell isn't involved in the immune system? Why?
megakaryocyte; because it does platelet info
What are the specific response white blood cells called?
bind to pathogens and either signal other immune cells to help locating the pathogen or they can disable the pathogen preventing them from further progress through the body and also limiting their functions
What are the non-specific response white blood cells called? (4 of them)
phagocytes, mast cells, eosinophils, and natural killer cells
What do macrophages eat?
virus-infected cells found in tissue and blood
What do neutrophils eat?
bacteria-infected cells in the blood
What do mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils do to destroy larger organisms together?
release toxins onto/into the organism
What are B-lymphocytes responsible for?
the production of antibodies (think B for Bone marrow)
What do antibodies do?
bind to pathogens and either signal other immune cells to help locate the pathogen or disable the pathogen from further progress through the body and limiting their functions
distinguishing characteristics on the surface of the pathogen
What do T-cytotoxic cells destroy? What is their protein marker called?
tumor cells and infected cells; CD-8
What do T-helper cells do? What is their marker protein called?
coordinate the specific immune response by releasing growth factors; CD-4
What does the T-suppressor cell do?
deactivate the immune response to cells that belong to you, or “self” cells
What does the T stand for in all the T-cells?
Thymus (located above the heart in the chest cavity)
fluid that the lymph vessels use for drainage of excess fluid (primarily water) in your tissue through lymph nodes
small bumps all around your body that swell during infection and contain T- and B-lymphocytes to respond to any pathogens or antigens circulating in the lymph fluid
the production of antibodies
How many different amino acids do humans have?
How many proteins make up one antibody?
How many pathogens can one antibody hold at one time?
Primary immune response:
the initial reaction that the immune system has to a pathogen; Antibodies and specific T lymphocytes are produced and this reaction may take 10 days-several weeks to be fully functioning
Secondary immune response:
reaction to either the second exposure or subsequent exposures to the same strain of pathogen; some B- and T-cells are left over from the first exposure, so they can destroy the infection quickly
a cell that is left over from a first encounter with an infection
T-suppressor cells prevent both B-cells and T-helper cells from maturing
immune response where receptors on the surface of each T cell are specific to each antigen, just like antibodies; however, the T cell receptor is not released because they interact directly with cells
"killer cells" that kill tumor and virus-infected cells
How does a virus infect a cell?
it enters the cell, integrates it's genetic material with the cell's DNA, and then takes control of the cell to make more virus DNA
When a cell is infected by a virus, what does it do in retaliation?
it displays some of the virus cells on it surface to be seen as antigens by the immune system and sends the right T-cytotoxic cells to kill the virus
when a cell transforms from normal cell division to abnormal and unregulated
What is an accumulation of tumor cells called?
a signal from the T-helper that has been activated by the same antigen that activated the B-cell
the signal that promotes the production of more T-cytotoxic cells as well as more T-helpers
major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class 1:
helps to identify our cells and marks them as “self” and serves as the holder of virus antigens if they are infected
major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class 2 are only found where?
they are only found in antigen-presenting cells (APC’s)
What do antigen-presenting cells (APC's) do to activate T-helper cells?
APC’s display antigens on their surface and are necessary to activate T-helper cells
white blood cells that are present in fixed positions of tissues that come into contact with the outside world (skin, lining in the respiratory tract, lining in the digestive tract, etc)