BIO 116 Ch. 3

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tenorsextets
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192174
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BIO 116 Ch. 3
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2013-01-15 03:29:55
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AIDS
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  1. Which cells does HIV target?
    white blood cells
  2. What makes up blood? (2 things)
    liquid and cellular components
  3. What are your blood vessels?
    arteries, veins, and capillaries
  4. What is blood responsible for?
    • deliver food and oxygen to tissues
    • remove COand other wastes from tissues
    • send clotting factors to wound sites 
    • send immune system cells and antibodies to wound site
  5. What is the fluid part of blood called?
    plasma
  6. What is the fluid part of blood responsible for?
    fighting pathogens, including cancer
  7. What does the heart do?
    pump blood to move it around the body
  8. Arteries:
    carry the oxygenated, nutrient rich blood from the heart to your tissues
  9. capillaries:
    responsible for the diffusion or passive movement of oxygen and nutrients into the tissue AND movement of COand other waste from tissues
  10. What makes capillary's job so easy?
    it's much thinner than arteries or veins
  11. What happens under your skin when you get a bruise?
    you have broken some capillaries in that area and blood collects there until it's healed
  12. What do veins do?
    return deoxygenated, nutrient depleted blood back to the heart
  13. Where are blood cells made?
    bone marrow from stem cells
  14. Where is the most active bone marrow in an adult?
    thick bones like femur or tibia
  15. What do red blood cells do?
    carry oxygen to tissues and carbon dioxide away from tissues
  16. What do white blood cells do?
    carry out immune system functions
  17. What makes red blood cells RED and what does it do?
    hemoglobin protein; binds it to oxygen
  18. Which white blood cell isn't involved in the immune system? Why?
    megakaryocyte; because it does platelet info
  19. What are the specific response white blood cells called?
    bind to pathogens and either signal other immune cells to help locating the pathogen or they can disable the pathogen preventing them from further progress through the body and also limiting their functions
  20. What are the non-specific response white blood cells called? (4 of them)
    phagocytes, mast cells, eosinophils, and natural killer cells
  21. Phagocytosis:
    "cell-eating"
  22. What do macrophages eat?
    virus-infected cells found in tissue and blood
  23. What do neutrophils eat?
    bacteria-infected cells in the blood
  24. What do mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils do to destroy larger organisms together?
    release toxins onto/into the organism
  25. What are B-lymphocytes responsible for?
    the production of antibodies (think B for Bone marrow)
  26. What do antibodies do?
    bind to pathogens and either signal other immune cells to help locate the pathogen or disable the pathogen from further progress through the body and limiting their functions
  27. antigens:
    distinguishing characteristics on the surface of the pathogen
  28. What do T-cytotoxic cells destroy?  What is their protein marker called?
    tumor cells and infected cells; CD-8
  29. What do T-helper cells do?  What is their marker protein called?
    coordinate the specific immune response by releasing growth factors; CD-4
  30. What does the T-suppressor cell do?
    deactivate the immune response to cells that belong to you, or “self” cells
  31. What does the T stand for in all the T-cells?
    Thymus (located above the heart in the chest cavity)
  32. lymph:
    fluid that the lymph vessels use for drainage of excess fluid (primarily water) in your tissue through lymph nodes
  33. lymph nodes:
    small bumps all around your body that swell during infection and contain T- and B-lymphocytes to respond to any pathogens or antigens circulating in the lymph fluid
  34. humoral immunity:
    the production of antibodies
  35. How many different amino acids do humans have?
    20
  36. How many proteins make up one antibody?
    4
  37. How many pathogens can one antibody hold at one time?
    2
  38. Primary immune response:
    the initial reaction that the immune system has to a pathogen; Antibodies and specific T lymphocytes are produced and this reaction may take 10 days-several weeks to be fully functioning
  39. Secondary immune response:
    reaction to either the second exposure or subsequent exposures to the same strain of pathogen; some B- and T-cells are left over from the first exposure, so they can destroy the infection quickly
  40. memory cell:
    a cell that is left over from a first encounter with an infection
  41. tolerance:
    T-suppressor cells prevent both B-cells and T-helper cells from maturing
  42. cell-mediated:
    immune response where receptors on the surface of each T cell are specific to each antigen, just like antibodies; however, the T cell receptor is not released because they interact directly with cells
  43. T-cytotoxic cells:
    "killer cells" that kill tumor and virus-infected cells
  44. How does a virus infect a cell?
    it enters the cell, integrates it's genetic material with the cell's DNA, and then takes control of the cell to make more virus DNA
  45. When a cell is infected by a virus, what does it do in retaliation?
    it displays some of the virus cells on it surface to be seen as antigens by the immune system and sends the right T-cytotoxic cells to kill the virus
  46. tumor cell:
    when a cell transforms from normal cell division to abnormal and unregulated
  47. What is an accumulation of tumor cells called?
    a tumor
  48. cytokine:
    a signal from the T-helper that has been activated by the same antigen that activated the B-cell
  49. interleukin-2 (IL-2):
    the signal that promotes the production of more T-cytotoxic cells as well as more T-helpers
  50. major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class 1:
    helps to identify our cells and marks them as “self” and serves as the holder of virus antigens if they are infected
  51. major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class 2 are only found where?
    they are only found in antigen-presenting cells (APC’s)
  52. What do antigen-presenting cells (APC's) do to activate T-helper cells?
    APC’s display antigens on their surface and are necessary to activate T-helper cells
  53. Dendritic cells:
    white blood cells that are present in fixed positions of tissues that come into contact with the outside world (skin, lining in the respiratory tract, lining in the digestive tract, etc)

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