Biology Vocab: Circulatory, Lymphatic

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Biology Vocab: Circulatory, Lymphatic
2013-01-23 18:09:58

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  1. Red Blood Cells
    • functions: carry Oto cells, and remove CO2, HCO3+ from cells
    • characteristics: red-hemoglobin (Fe), no nucleus, 100-120 day life span, made in bone marrow, old cells removed in liver and spleen
  2. Platelet (Thrombocytes)
    • function: forming clots
    • characteristics: cell fragments, lack nuclei, when signaled proteins can surface and become sticky
  3. White Blood Cell
    • function: fight invaders
    • characteristics: large nucleus, made in bone marrow, respond where needed, 1 WBC to 600 RBC, life=3 days, can attack you (arthritis, allergies)
  4. Hemostasis
    refers to the mechanism by which bleeding is stopped
  5. Vascular Spasm
    a contraction of the smooth muscles in the vascular walls
  6. Platelet Plug Formation
    • platelets stick to a vessel wall
    • platelets release chemicals
    • platelets stick to each other to make a plug
  7. Coagulation
    • blood senses damage
    • intrinsic or extrinsic signals trigger thrombin
    • thrombin cuts fibrinogen, turning it into sticky fibrin that forms a clot = a network of insoluble fibrin (protein fibers) in which blood formed elements are trapped
  8. Hemolysis
    • rupturing of blood cells
    • if blood types not matched may have antigen = antibody reaction
    • could result in kidne damage
    • could result in death
    • must match blood between donor and recipient when performing blood transfusions
  9. Blood Antigens
    A or B proteins on cells
  10. Blood Antibodies
    anti-A or anti-B proteins in blood
  11. Agglutination
    when blood clumps due to antibody cross-linking 
  12. Arteries 
    • "A" away
    • blood away from the heart
    • oxygen rich
    • can be clogged with cholesterol
  13. Veins
    • back to heart
    • one way valves and contractions
    • close to surface of skin
  14. Capillaries
    • connect arteries to veins
    • small (some walls 1 cell thick)
    • gas and nutrient/waste exchange happens here
  15. Coronary Circulation
    vessels to the heart
  16. Pulmonary Circulation
    vessels to the lungs
  17. Systemic Circulation
    vessels to rest of body
  18. Vessels To Know
    • arteries: carotid, aorta, hepatic (to liver), renal (to kidneys), mesenteric (to intestines), radial, femoral
    • veins: jugular, superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, hepatic, renal, mesenteric, femoral
  19. Pericardium
    sack around heart to lubricate
  20. Myocardium
    the cardiac muscle in a heart
  21. Endocardium
    smooth inner layer of tissue
  22. Systole
    ventricles contracting, the "beat"
  23. Diastole
    ventricles relaxed, "resting"
  24. Pacemaker
    nerve controlling speed of heart
  25. Vagus Nerve
    abdominal organ function--sends blood to gut
  26. Sympathetic Nerve
    nerve controlling heart's response to stimuli
  27. Anemia
    • too few RBC's due to lack of iron (Fe) to build hemoglobin
    • symptoms: easily bruised, fatigue
  28. Leukemia
    • malignant disease of blood forming tissue
    • uncontrolled production and accumulation of immature WBC's
    • blood cancer
  29. Hemophilia
    • missing one of the clotting factors
    • most commonly factor Xa
    • sometimes factor VIII
  30. High Blood Pressure
    • strokes, heart attack, and kidney failure
    • factors: overweight, heredity, diet, stress
  31. Arteriosclerosis
    hardening and clogging of arteries that reduces elasticity
  32. Hear Attack
    • coronary artery has been becoming clogged for years
    • part of heart supplied by that artery will die
    • risk factors: weight, smoking, lack of exercise, genetics, high fat diets
  33. Myocardial Infarction
    acute heart attack
  34. Stroke
    • interference of the blood supply to brain cells due to clogged arteries
    • brain cells die due to clogged vessels
  35. Rheumatic Fever
    • seems to keep returning and damaging vessels
    • can replace damaged valves
  36. Lymph Nodes
    • small oval masses of lymphoid tissue
    • composed mainly of lymphocytes
    • concentrated in the neck, armpit, groin, and abdominal cavity
  37. Spleen
    • largest organ of the lymphatic system  on left side of abdomen
    • lymphocytes and macrophages
    • large filter to remove foreign particles and worn out cells
  38. Thymus Gland
    • soft structure located near the heart (mediastinum)
    • active during time of development of the immune system
  39. Tonsils
    • located in the mouth and throat
    • 3 pairs: palatine, pharyngeal, lingual
    • white blood cells within the tissue destroy pathogens in the mouth and throat regions
  40. Red Bone Marrow
    • located in the spongy bone tissue
    • site of hematopoiesis: production of all blood cells including lymphocytes