Bio Midterm Review 2011.txt

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zrondos
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Bio Midterm Review 2011.txt
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Bio midterm cards. :)
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  1. Name the steps of the Scientific Method (specifically order)
    • state the problem/purpose
    • Hypothesis-research implied-only useful if it can be tested
    • Controlled Experiment-testing on variable at a time
    • Record and Analyze data
    • Conclusion-an ending statement about your hypothesis
    • Repeat Experiment/Publish
  2. Describe the difference between a control and a variable in an experiment.
    • A control is the normal standard to compare something to.
    • The manipulated variable is the one thing different from the controll that YOU change
    • The dependent variable is what gets affected by the manipulated variable
  3. What is the total magnification for a microscope with an ocular at 10X magnification an an objective at 50X magnification?
    500X magnification (don't forget the X)
  4. What microscope would you typically use to look at a LIVING CELL?
    Compound Light Microscope
  5. What microscope would you typically use to get a topocraphical 3D view of a cell?
    Scanning Electron Microscope
  6. What microscope would you typically use to get an image of the inside of a cell?
    Transmission electron microscope
  7. What is the point at which detail is lost with a light microscope called?
    The limit of Resolutioin. Electron microscopes can magnify more without getting fuzzy.
  8. What are the 8 characteristis of living things?
    • Organization-prescne of 1 or more cells
    • Universal genetic code-DNA deoxribonucleic acid
    • Response to Stimuli(us)/enviornment
    • Homeostasis
    • Metabolism-living things obtain and use energy
    • Growth and development
    • Reproduction
    • Change through time/evolution
  9. An owl's pupils dialte. What characteristic of life is it?
    Responde to Stimuli.
  10. A bird flys south for the winter. What characteristic of life is it?
    Response to enviornment
  11. Define Homeostatis
    The maintence of a stable level of internal conditions even though enviornmental conditions are constantly changing.
  12. Distinguish the difference between elements, compound and symbols.
    • Elements cannot be broekn down furthor.
    • Compounds are 2 or more elements.
    • Symobls are letters that represent elements.
  13. What are the laws related to chemical reactions?
    • Matter is neither created nor destoryed.
    • Energy is neither created nor destoryed. Only transfered.
  14. Define an isotope. Give an example
    C12,C13,C14. Carbon has many different forms with many different nuetrons with C12 being most common.
  15. What is the balanced equation for photosynthesis?
    6H20+6CO2---light--->C6H12O6+6O2
  16. What is another name for the dark reactions?
    Calvin cycle and light independent reactions
  17. Does the Calvin Cycle create glucose?
    No. It creates G3P which combine into glucose.
  18. What color is the least useful to plants?
    Green. It is not absorbed so no energy is absorbed.
  19. What is the relationship of the stomata and the guard cells?
    THe guard cells cover and release the stomata holes.
  20. What protects the leaf from drying out?
    The cuticle or wax layer
  21. Thylakoid Shape
    Pancake
  22. Granum Shape
    Stack of Thylakoids
  23. What surrounds the stroma?
    Membrane (just membrane)
  24. Cytoplams is to cell as _____ is to chloroplast.
    Stroma
  25. Contrast covalent, ionic and hydrogen bonds.
  26. Covalent bonds share electrons.
  27. Ionic bonds transfer electrons then the opposites attract
    • .
    • Hydrogen bonds are weak.
  28. What is the pH scale.
  29. 0<---acid----------7=neutral----base(alkaline)-------->14
  30. If you keep adding an acid to a substance but the substance does not get more acidic then you are using a_______?
  31. Buffer
  32. What is a monomer?
  33. Simple molecule
  34. What is the monomer of a Carboydrate?
  35. Monosaccharide
  36. What is the monomer of a Protein?
  37. Amino acid
  38. What is the monomer of a Nucleic Acid?
  39. Nucleotides
  40. If 2 compounds break apart because water is added what happened?
  41. Hydrolysis
  42. If 2 compounds combine because water is taken away, what happened?
  43. Dehydration Synthesis
  44. All proteins contain...
    Nitrogen
  45. All Nucleic acids contain...
    Phosphorous
  46. What are the properties of Carbon?
  47. It makes a compound organic.
  48. It can form single, double, triple or ring bonds.
  49. What is the most abundant COMPOUND in living things?
    Water. Carbon is an element. Not a compound.
  50. What is the most abundant ELEMENT in living things?
  51. Carbon
  52. In the light reactions, how does water break down.
  53. If there is a choice about an enzyme choose that.
  54. If there is no choice about enyzmes choose light.
  55. What kinds of organisms perfom cellular respiration?
    EVERY LIVING ORGANSIM
  56. Name and the 2 types of fermentation.
    Lactic Acid Fermentation and Alocoholic Fermentation
  57. What can fermentation be used for?
    • The brewing and alchol industries.
    • To recreate NAD+ so glycolysis can produce ATP.
  58. What are NADH and FADH2?
    They are electron carries. They carry electrons to the Electron Transport Chain
  59. What is the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration?
    **OXYGEN**
  60. What are the 3 domains?
    • Archae
    • Bacteria
    • Eukarya
  61. What domain do humans fall under?
    Eukarya
  62. How do you write an organisms scientfic name?
    Genus species. (In italics (typed) or underlined (written). The first letter in the Genus is capitalized. The first letter in the species in lower case.
  63. What is the order for taxanomic grouping?
    • Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species.
    • "Darn. Kings play cards on fat stools."
  64. Structure of a virus
    1 Nucleic Acid and proteins. (The nucleic acid is either DNA or RNA. NOT BOTH)
  65. Are viruses living?
    NO!
  66. Why do you need a new flu vacine every year?
    The virus changes every year.
  67. The flu is what type of virus?
    A retro Virus
  68. What does HIV affect?
    The immune system.
  69. What does HIV stand for?
    Human imunedifficienty virus.
  70. How is HIV transfered?
    Through bodily fluids.
  71. Metric conversions
    • Kilo,hecto,deka,(unit),deci,cent,milli
    • Kings have diamonds. My diamonds cut mirrors.
  72. When using a catalyst, what decreases?
    The activation energy.
  73. Is water polar or nonpolar?
    polar
  74. What are the properties of water?
    • Universal Solvent
    • Cohesion
    • Adhesion
    • Absorb large amounts of energy as heat
    • to cool surface through evaporation
    • low density as ice
  75. What is important about the structure of phosopholipids?
    They have a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail.
  76. What is the sturcture of a lipid?
    A carboxyl group with a fatty acid tail.
  77. What is the structure of an amino acid.
    An amine group, a carboxly group, an R (other) group and an CH3 group.
  78. What is the structure of a monosachhairde?
    CHO in a 1:2:1 ration.
  79. What is the structure of a nucleic acid?
    A phosphate group, a 5-carbon sugar and a nitrogenous base.
  80. What 3 factors affect the rate of photosnythesis?
    Light intensity, Carbon Dioxide and temperature

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