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What is Biology?
The study of life.
Name the steps of the Scientifc Method
- A.State the problem/purpose
- B.Hypothesis-research implied-only useful if it can be tested
- C.Controlled Experiment-testing one variable at a time
- D.Recrod and anyalyze data
- E.Concluision-an ending statement about your hypothesis
- F.Repeat Experiment/Publish
Describe the difference between a control and a variable in an experiment.
A control is the normal standard and the variable is the one thing different from the control that CAN change the results to be comparded to those of the control.
List the standar metric units for length, mass, temperature, and volume.
- Length:Meters (m)
- Mass: grams (g)
- Temperature: Celcius (degrees C)
- Volume: liter(l)
What is microscope?
A device used to magnify and study microorganisms by extending human vision by making enlarged images of objects.
Describe the view of an object through a microscope vs. the actual object
A microscope can only see small parts of the object and and see more closley with better details. The human eye can see the whole object.
What is the total magnification for a microscope with an ocular lense at 10X magnification and an objective at 50X magnification.
Uses lamp as a light source, 2 knobs and diaphram.
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
Topography of specimen, coated with metals, 3D, 100,000X magnification
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
Inside specimen, dense dark thin light, 2D, 200,000X magnification
What is the point at which detail is lost with a light microscope called?
List 5 lab saftey rules
- Always wear eye protection
- Tie your hair back
- don't breath odors directly. Waft them towards your nose with you hand.
- Report ALL injuries to the teacher.
- Don't eat or drink in the labratory.
- Wash your hands after handling chemicals.
- Be alert for unsafe conditions
- Never attempt unauthorized experiments
List 8 characterists of living things
- Organization-presence of 1 or more cells
- Universal genetic code-DNA deoxribonyuceic acid
- Response to Stimuli(us)/enviornment
- Metabolism-living things obtain and use energy
- Growth and development
- Change through time/eveolve-adaaptation
The maintence of a stable level of internal conditions even though enviornmental conditions are constantly changing.
Determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons from a give element on the periodic table.
- Protons and eletrons=atomic number
- Neutrons-Atomic mass-atomic number
Give the location, charge and mass of the three subatomic particles.
- Proton:Nucleus:Positive:1,00727638 amu
- Neutron:Nucleus:Nuetral:1.0086649156 amu
- Electron:Orbit:Negative:.0005446623 amu
What does amu mean?
Atomic Mass Unit
Define an isotpoe. Give an example.
Atoms of the same element with different nuetrons. C12, C13, C14
Contrast covalent, ionic, and hydrogen bonds.
- Covalent: Atoms share electrons
- Ionic: Electron is donated, opposites attract
- Hydrogen: Positive hydrrogen is attraced to negative oxygen.
Contrast an atom and an ion.
An atom in nuetral while an ion has an electric charge.
Describe the three states of matter.
- Solid:Set Volume and shape
- Liquid: Set volume. No set shape.
- Gas: No set volume and shape.
substance dissolved (sugar)
dissolves the solute (water)
Substance is uniformly distributed in another
Mixture of two substances, 1 does not rapidly settle out.
Describe the role of buffers in living systems.
Chemical substances that neutrulize small amounts of either base or acid added to solution, it helps maintain pH values in stomach acid, intestinal fluid, urine, blood etc.
What does pH stand for?
Potential of Hydrogen
What is a monomer?
Monomer of a Carbohydrate
Monomer of Protein
Monomer of Nucleic Acid
List 3 carbohydrate monomers
glucose, fructose, galactose
List 3 polysaccharides
Glycogen, starch, cellulose
Compare starce and cellulose
- Starch: branched and coiled chains
- Cellulose: straight and chaing
Compare and contrast hydrolysis and dehyrdation synthesis.
- Hydrolysis breaks down compounds using water.
- Dehrdation synthesis (condensation reaction) builds up compounds when water is removed
What are the 3 parts of nucleic acid
- Nitrogenous base
- 5 carbon sugar
- Phosphate group
List a few scientific examples of lipids?
- Triglyercerides, Phospholipids, waxes, fats, oils, fatty acids, sterioids
- Fatty Acids and Carboxly groups
Describe the structure and importance of phospholipids
They have 2 fatty acids attached to glercerol. They make up the cell membrane.
What does Iodine detect?
Starch; turns black and blue
What does Biuret detect?
What does Benedicts detect?
What is the most abundant compound in living things?
Compare prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
- Prokarytoes lack membrane bound nucleus and organells. They are smaller and have DNA in the nucleioid.
- Eukaryotes have membrane bound nuclues and organelles. They are larger and have DNA in the nuclues.
What are the three statements of cell theory?
- A.All living organisms are composed of one or more cells
- B.Cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism
- C.Cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells
Who is respondsible for cell theory?
- Matthias Schleiden.
- Theodor Schwann.
- Rudolf Virchow.
create protein and direct protein synthesis
large fluid filled organelle that stores water, ezymes, metabolic wastes, etc
transfer energy to make sugar from CO2+H2O
ridgid layer outside the plasma membrane
vesicles that bud from Golgi apparatus and contain digestive enzymes beak down large molecules like proteins
covers cell's surfaces and acts as barrier for cell
network of thin tubes and filaments that criss cross cytosol give shape and support to cell
What part of the cell contains the genetic code?
What organelle is made up of a lipid bi-layerwith proteins emeded within?
Who first coined the term cell?
Robert Hooke: 1665
Who invented the first decent microscope?
Antoine van Leeuwenhoek: 1655
Compare/contrast diffusion and osmosis.
- Both go from [high] to [low]
- Diffusion can be any small, lipid soluble particle
- Osmosis is only water
What does selective permeable mean and which cell part does it relate to?
It lets some substance in and some not. It refers to the cell membrane.
List 3 examples of passive transport
- Faciliated Diffusion
There is more solute inside the cell
There is more solute outside the cell
The amount of solute inside and outside the cell is equal
transport of solutes or flids
movement of large particles or whole cells
substance is released from cell through vesicles that transports subtance to cell surface and then fuses with membrane to let substance out of the cell.
Define and give an example of active transport.
When cells move materials against [gradient] from [low] to [high]
How do cells, tissues, organs and organ systems all inter-relate.
Cells make up tissues. Tissues make up organs. Organs make up organ systems. Organ systems make up organisms.
What is the balanced equation for photosynthesis?
What is ATP?
Adenosine triphosphate. Contains a high energy bond in which energy is released when broken.
What is the source of energy for photosynthesis? What kind of energy is it converted into by photosynthesis?
Light energy to chemical energy.
What are the reactants and products for the light reactions?
- Reactants:H20,NADP+, ADP,P.
- Products: H+, NADPH, ATP,O2
What is another name for the dark reactions?
What are the reactanct and products for the dark reactions?
- Reactants: CO2 chemical energy store in Nadph and ATp
- Products: organic compounds (sugars)
What is a pigment? What is the most common in plants?
pigments in plants absorb some colors of the visible spectrum of light and will reflect specific colors- ones they appear as to the eye. stomata- major passageway.
Explain how the exchange of gases occur in a leaf.
closed stomata allow o2 level to increase from light reactions, co2 decreases. stomata- major passageway
What is the relationship of the stomata and the guard cells?
prohibits necessary water from leaving plant
What protects the leaf from drying out?
The stomata closing, so the water is unable to escape
What is the function of the vein?
- phloem: carries food down the vein
- xylem: carries water up the vein
Where does aerobic respiration occur? Why?
occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria contains the enzymes needed to catalyze the reactions of the Krebs cycle.
What are the reactants and products of aerobic cellular respriation.
Glucose + o2 ----> co2 and water and atp
What kinds of organisms perform cellular respiration?
autotrophs and heterotrophs (plants, animals)
Name and define the 2 types of fermentation
- Lactic acid: an enzyme converts pyruvic acid made during glycolysis into a 3-carbon compound called lactic acid.
- Alcoholic: convert pyruvic acid into ethyl alcohol
What can fermentation be used for?
- helps make atp
- -brewing industry (beer and wine)
- -baking industry (breads)
- -dairy industry ( cheese and yogurt)
What are Nadh and fadh2?
electron carries in a cell they produce atp
Where does the Krebs Cycle occur?
in the mitochondria of a cell "powerhouse"
Where is the ETC located?
mitochondria of a cell "powerhouse" "mighty-chondria
What is the final electron accpetor in aerobic respiration?
- oxidative phosphorylation "add phosphate"