Ch 14

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RadTherapy
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192212
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Ch 14
Updated:
2013-01-27 16:16:00
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Atomic physics subatomic particles
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pages 277-279 washington- leaver
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  1. transmitted energy in the form of EM waves, charged and neutral particles from different sources such as the sun and atoms
    Radiation
  2. involves the use of ionizing radiation that can ionize the medium it passes through, to deliver the lethal dose to the target cells while keeping normal tissue below tolerance level as much as possible.
    Radiation Therapy
  3. Name 5 types of ionizing radiation sources produces by accelerators and radioactive sources
    • X-rays, gamma rays, and
    • electron, proton and neutron beams
  4. Four Major quantities important to Radiation Physics
    • Radioactivity
    • Radiation exposure
    • radiation absorbed dose
    • radiation dose equivalent
  5. physical quantities are characterized by _____ and _____
    magnitude and unit
  6. The rate of change of position given by the ratio of Distance /time
    Speed
  7. According to SI units, the 7 basic physical quantities and their units are
    • Length (l) : meter (m)
    • Mass (m) : kilogram (kg)
    • Time (t) : second (s)
    • Electrical current (I) : ampere(A)
    • Temperature (T) : kelvin (k)
    • Amount of substance : mole (mol)
    • Luminous intensity : candela (cd)
  8. smallest unit of an element which retains the properties of that element
    atom
  9. What are subatomic atoms?
    the electrons, protons and neutrons of an atom
  10. elementary particles belonging to class of particles known as leptons
    electrons
  11. Composite particles belonging to class of particles known as Hadrons
    neutrons and protons
  12. Who is J.J. thompson?
    Discovered electrons in 1897
  13. The sub atomic particles are classify in two groups, the _______ and the _______
    leptons and hadrons
  14. Name the 4 types of forces which are responsible for the interaction between different particles
    • Gravity
    • Electromagnetic (EM)
    • the Strong Force
    • the Weak Force
  15. Define electromagnetic
    • force responsible for interaction between electrically charged particles and particles with nonzero magnetic moments.
    • responsible for binding of electrons and nucleus to forms atoms, binding of atoms to form molecules , binding of molecules to form liquids and solids.
  16. Define Gravity
    force responsible for interaction between particles with nonzero mass and has infinite range
  17. what is the Strong Force?
    short ranged force that is responsible for interaction between neutron and proton and other particles belonging to the hadrons family
  18. Define the weak force
    • short ranged force responsible for interaction between elementary particles involving neutrinos or antineutrinos.
    • also responsible for radioactive decay of a neutron to a proton, an electron and an antineutrino (beta decay)
  19. what is beta decay?
    • radioactive decay of a neutron to a:
    • proton,
    • an electron,
    • and an antineutrino
  20. Rank forces in order of strength, 1-4
    • 1.Strong force
    • 2.Electromagnetic
    • 3. Weak Force
    • 4. Gravity
  21. The Strong force affects which group of particles?
    hadrons
  22. Which forces affect the Lepton particle group?
    Weak force, EM force and gravity
  23. Subatomic particles important in Rad therapy are (5)
    electrons, positrons, protons, neutrons, photons
  24. Rest mass refers to
    mass (weight) of the particle when it is not moving
  25. which properties of subatomic particles are important in Rad therapy
    Rest mass and electrical charge
  26. How is mass of subatomic particle measured?
    atomic mass unit (amu)

    1 amu=1.99x10-26/12kg= 1.66x 10-27kg
  27. an electrical charge is
    a fundamental property or character of subatomic particles which determines the strength of their gravitational interaction
  28. 1 inch = _____ cm?
    2.54 cm
  29. 1 Ci = 
    3.7 x 10 10 Bq
  30. 1 Bq = 
    2.7 x 10-11 Ci
  31. 1 roentgen (1 R) =
    2.58 x 10-4 C/kg
  32. 1 Coulomb/ kilogram (1 C/kg) = 
    3.88 x 103 R (roentgen)
  33. 1 rad = 
    .01 Gy
  34. 1 Gy = 
    100 rad
  35. 1 cGy =
    1 rad
  36. radioactivity
    • 1 curie        3.73 x 1010 dps Bq
    • 1 Becqueral 2.7   x 10-11 Ci
  37. Radiation Exposure (in air)
    • roentgen (R)    2.58 x 10-4 C/kg
    • Coulomb C/kg   3.88 x 103 R
  38. Radiation Absorbed Dose
    • 1 rad = .01 Gy
    • 1 cGy = 1 Rad
    • 1 Gy  = 100 rad
  39. Radiation Dose Equivalent
    • rem = .01 Sv
    • Sv   = 100 rem
  40. Atomic mass unit
    defined as mass of an atom of carbon 12 is 12 amu

    1 amu = 1.66 x 10-27kg
  41. What is electrical charge?
    • a fundamental property or character of subatomic particles.
    •  determines the strength of their EM interaction
  42. What does the mass of the subatomic particles determine?
    the strength of their gravitational interaction
  43. What are the 4 assumptions of the Bohr atom?
    • 1. Electrons surrounding the nucleus exist only   in certain energy states.
    • 2.Electrons do not lose energy when they reside in any of the allowed orbits.
    • 3.when electrons move from a high energy orbit to a lower energy orbit the atom emits radiation.  the lost energy is seen in the atomic spectra.
    • 4. the angular momentum (L)

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