A&P

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Author:
Mct1
ID:
19224
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A&P
Updated:
2010-05-13 21:14:31
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Anatomy
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Basics/histology
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  1. what are the regions of the abdominopelvic region?
    • Right and left Hypochondriac
    • Epigastric
    • right and left lumbar
    • umbilical
    • right and left iliac (inguinal)
    • hypohastric
  2. what are the regions of the quadrant system?
    • upper right and left
    • lower right and left
  3. What are the directional terms?
  4. what are the 4 body cavities?
    • posterior cavity
    • anterior cavity
    • thoracic cavity
    • abdominopelvic cavity
  5. what regions make up the posterior cavity?
    the cranial vault and spinal cord
  6. what regions make up the anterior cavity and what are its 2 subparts?
    • 1st subpart is the Thoracic Cavity which consists of the pleural cavities, pericardial cavity, and the mediastinum
    • 2nd subpart is the abdominopelvic cavity

    these 2 subparts are divided by the Diaphram
  7. what is homeostasis?
    • -this is dynamic equilibrium or the steady state
    • -has NO constant values, only normal ranges --> bc the nature of the control mechanisms make constant values impossible to maintain
  8. what is negative feedback and examples?
    • = the product of the rxn inhibits the production of that product
    • -overshoot and undershoot (think of the normal ranges)
    • -contains a Sensor -> Integrator ->Effector
    • Examples
    • -Blood pressure
    • -Glucose Levels
  9. what is positive feedback and it's examples?
    • = the product of the rxn will stimulate product of that rxn
    • 1.) Ovulation
    • 2.) Labor
    • 3.) Blood Clotting
    • 4.) Shock
    • 5.) Nerve Impulses
  10. what are the 4 basic tissue types?
    • 1.) Connective
    • 2.) Epithelial
    • 3.) Nervous
    • 4.) Muscle
  11. what are the functions of Epithelial Tissue?
    covering, lining, and glands

    -glands; because although glands are below the surface, they can generate vaginations, or an outgrowth, or a gland with no connection
  12. name the different epithelial tissue cell shapes?
    • -Squamous = flat cells, nuclei
    • -Stratified = square-ish cells, round nuclei
    • -Columnar = tall cells, oval nuclei
  13. name the different epithelial tissue cell layers?
    • -Simple = One cell layer
    • -Stratified = two or more cell layers
    • -Pseudostratified = short/tall cells interspersed, found ONLY in the Respiratory Tract
    • -Transitional = changes the # of layers it has constantly, found ONLY in the Urinary Bladder
  14. What is Merocrine and give an example?
    • = a thin, watery method of glandular secretion; causes NO cell destruction when passing through.
    • Example
    • sweat and salivary glands
  15. What is Apocrine and give an example?
    = thicker secretion, when the cell pinches off along with the secrection, and causes partial cell destruction; a glandular secretion method

    • Examples
    • sweat glands of axilla, public area, areolar areas, and mammary glands
  16. What is Holocrine and give an example?
    = the cell is lost by thick secretion, where the cell actually becomes the secretion; a glandular secretion method

    • Example
    • oil glands
  17. What are mucous membranes?
    these are thin secretions that line open body cavities that open to the outside, such as: the nose, urethra, rectum, and digestive system
  18. What are serous membranes?
    • -thin/watery secretions
    • -line closed body cavities --> lubricate against eachother for protection of internal organs
    • -pleural and peritoneum
  19. what are synovial membranes?
    • -these are actually Connective Tissue
    • -ONLY membranes that are NOT Epithelial
    • -line the joint cavities -> thin fluid lubricates
  20. Name the functions of connective tissues?
    • -connect
    • -support
    • -insulate
    • -transport - blood
    • -protection - WBC
    • -storage
    • -body contours - redistribution of connective tissue
    • -organ framework
  21. Name the 5 types of Connective tissue
    • 1.) Embryonic
    • 2.) Connective tissue proper
    • 3.) Cartilage
    • 4.) Bone (osseous) Tissue
    • 5.) Vascular
  22. Embryonic Connective tissue?
    • -have Mesenchyme = the ultimate stem cell, and can become ANY kind of connective tissue
    • -differentiate into other adult connective tissue
  23. Connective Tissue Proper?
    • -Loose(areolar) = 1o area of water storage (edema)
    • = can hold 2 structures together but can allow movement

    • -Dense - Collagen = Tendons/ligaments
    • =universal connective tissue -> WONT stretch

    • -Elastic = blood vessel walls/respiratory passageways
    • = will stretch and return to shape

    • -Reticular = organ framework
    • = forms "mesh/wiring" that holds cells to make framework for organs

    -Adipose = long term E storage/Body contour/insulation/protection
  24. What are the 3 types of cartilage?
    • 1.) Hyaline --> nose/embryonic skeleton/repiratory tubes
    • 2.) Fibrocartilage - strong bc of Collagen reinforcment -->intervertebral discs/ public arch/ menisci of knee
    • 3.) Elastic - made of Elastin causing cartilage to return to shape after being bent --> ear/ larynx/ auditory canal
  25. Name the types of Bone (osseous) tissue
    • 1.) Compact aka Dense or Lamellar bone
    • 2.) Spongy or Cancellous bone (inside, and made of plates)
  26. What is Vascular Connective Tissue?
    = a liquid, blood, or blood forming tissue
  27. What is isotonic movement?
    = contraction WITH movement
  28. What is isometric movement?
    = contraction WITHOUT movement
  29. Where is Smooth Muscle found and what are its characteristics?
    • Found
    • -Organs and Vessel Walls
    • -Reproductive organs
    • -Urinary Tract

    • Characteristics
    • -lacks striations
    • -spindle shaped
    • -involuntary (<= irratation & stretching and/or hormones and ANS)
    • -slow to repsond and slow to fatigue
  30. Where is Cardiac Muscle found and what are its characteristics?
    • Found
    • -ONLY found in making up the heart walls

    • Characteristics
    • -striated (light/dark banding)
    • -intercalated discs --> if you stimulate one heart muscle, you stimulate them all
    • -intrinsic contractions = stimulates itself
    • -fast to respond and slow to fatigue
  31. Skeletal Muscle function and characteristics?
    • Function
    • -movement of skeleton
    • -breathing
    • -swallowing
    • -control of bladder and rectum

    • Characteristics
    • -striated
    • -voluntary - due to nerve stimulation
    • -fast to respond and fast to fatigue
  32. Name the 2 components of Nervous Tissue
    • 1.) Neurons => communication site with axons & dendrities
    • Functions = reception - conduction - stimulation

    • 2.) Neuroglia => supportive cells
    • Holds the brain together, instead of connective tissue
  33. Name the factors of tissue repair
    • -general health
    • -nutrition - bc you need E to heal
    • -age
    • -blood flow
  34. What is Atrophy?
    = wasting of body tissues; NOT cell death, but cells shrink in size
  35. What is Necrosis?
    = death of tissues within a living organism; cell death due to lack of blood flow
  36. What is Gangrene?
    = massive nercrosis + infection
  37. What is Autotransplant?
    transplant from same individual, as in your own tissue.
  38. What is Isotransplant?
    transplant from a closely related individual, like a sibling or a tissue match
  39. What is homotransplant?
    transplant from same species, anybody in general
  40. What is heterotransplant?
    transplant from a different species, i.e. pig valves

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