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what are the regions of the abdominopelvic region?
- Right and left Hypochondriac
- right and left lumbar
- right and left iliac (inguinal)
what are the regions of the quadrant system?
- upper right and left
- lower right and left
What are the directional terms?
what are the 4 body cavities?
- posterior cavity
- anterior cavity
- thoracic cavity
- abdominopelvic cavity
what regions make up the posterior cavity?
the cranial vault and spinal cord
what regions make up the anterior cavity and what are its 2 subparts?
- 1st subpart is the Thoracic Cavity which consists of the pleural cavities, pericardial cavity, and the mediastinum
- 2nd subpart is the abdominopelvic cavity
these 2 subparts are divided by the Diaphram
what is homeostasis?
- -this is dynamic equilibrium or the steady state
- -has NO constant values, only normal ranges --> bc the nature of the control mechanisms make constant values impossible to maintain
what is negative feedback and examples?
- = the product of the rxn inhibits the production of that product
- -overshoot and undershoot (think of the normal ranges)
- -contains a Sensor -> Integrator ->Effector
- -Blood pressure
- -Glucose Levels
what is positive feedback and it's examples?
- = the product of the rxn will stimulate product of that rxn
- 1.) Ovulation
- 2.) Labor
- 3.) Blood Clotting
- 4.) Shock
- 5.) Nerve Impulses
what are the 4 basic tissue types?
- 1.) Connective
- 2.) Epithelial
- 3.) Nervous
- 4.) Muscle
what are the functions of Epithelial Tissue?
covering, lining, and glands
-glands; because although glands are below the surface, they can generate vaginations, or an outgrowth, or a gland with no connection
name the different epithelial tissue cell shapes?
- -Squamous = flat cells, nuclei
- -Stratified = square-ish cells, round nuclei
- -Columnar = tall cells, oval nuclei
name the different epithelial tissue cell layers?
- -Simple = One cell layer
- -Stratified = two or more cell layers
- -Pseudostratified = short/tall cells interspersed, found ONLY in the Respiratory Tract-Transitional = changes the # of layers it has constantly, found ONLY in the Urinary Bladder
What is Merocrine and give an example?
- = a thin, watery method of glandular secretion; causes NO cell destruction when passing through.
- sweat and salivary glands
What is Apocrine and give an example?
= thicker secretion, when the cell pinches off along with the secrection, and causes partial
cell destruction; a glandular secretion
- sweat glands of axilla, public area, areolar areas, and mammary glands
What is Holocrine and give an example?
= the cell is lost
by thick secretion, where the cell actually becomes the secretion; a glandular secretion
What are mucous membranes?
these are thin secretions that line open body cavities that open to the outside, such as: the nose, urethra, rectum, and digestive system
What are serous membranes?
- -thin/watery secretions
- -line closed body cavities --> lubricate against eachother for protection of internal organs
- -pleural and peritoneum
what are synovial membranes?
- -these are actually Connective Tissue
- -ONLY membranes that are NOT Epithelial
- -line the joint cavities -> thin fluid lubricates
Name the functions of connective tissues?
- -transport - blood
- -protection - WBC
- -body contours - redistribution of connective tissue
- -organ framework
Name the 5 types of Connective tissue
- 1.) Embryonic
- 2.) Connective tissue proper
- 3.) Cartilage
- 4.) Bone (osseous) Tissue
- 5.) Vascular
Embryonic Connective tissue?
- -have Mesenchyme = the ultimate stem cell, and can become ANY kind of connective tissue
- -differentiate into other adult connective tissue
Connective Tissue Proper?
- -Loose(areolar) = 1o area of water storage (edema)
- = can hold 2 structures together but can allow movement
- -Dense - Collagen = Tendons/ligaments
- =universal connective tissue -> WONT stretch
- -Elastic = blood vessel walls/respiratory passageways
- = will stretch and return to shape
- -Reticular = organ framework
- = forms "mesh/wiring" that holds cells to make framework for organs
-Adipose = long term E storage/Body contour/insulation/protection
What are the 3 types of cartilage?
- 1.) Hyaline --> nose/embryonic skeleton/repiratory tubes
- 2.) Fibrocartilage - strong bc of Collagen reinforcment -->intervertebral discs/ public arch/ menisci of knee
- 3.) Elastic - made of Elastin causing cartilage to return to shape after being bent --> ear/ larynx/ auditory canal
Name the types of Bone (osseous) tissue
- 1.) Compact aka Dense or Lamellar bone
- 2.) Spongy or Cancellous bone (inside, and made of plates)
What is Vascular Connective Tissue?
= a liquid, blood, or blood forming tissue
What is isotonic movement?
= contraction WITH movement
What is isometric movement?
= contraction WITHOUT movement
Where is Smooth Muscle found and what are its characteristics?
- -Organs and Vessel Walls
- -Reproductive organs
- -Urinary Tract
- -lacks striations
- -spindle shaped
- -involuntary (<= irratation & stretching and/or hormones and ANS)
- -slow to repsond and slow to fatigue
Where is Cardiac Muscle found and what are its characteristics?
- -ONLY found in making up the heart walls
- -striated (light/dark banding)
- -intercalated discs --> if you stimulate one heart muscle, you stimulate them all
- -intrinsic contractions = stimulates itself
- -fast to respond and slow to fatigue
Skeletal Muscle function and characteristics?
- -movement of skeleton
- -control of bladder and rectum
- -voluntary - due to nerve stimulation
- -fast to respond and fast to fatigue
Name the 2 components of Nervous Tissue
- 1.) Neurons => communication site with axons & dendrities
- Functions = reception - conduction - stimulation
- 2.) Neuroglia => supportive cells
- Holds the brain together, instead of connective tissue
Name the factors of tissue repair
- -general health
- -nutrition - bc you need E to heal
- -blood flow
What is Atrophy?
= wasting of body tissues; NOT cell death, but cells shrink in size
What is Necrosis?
= death of tissues within a living organism; cell death due to lack of blood flow
What is Gangrene?
= massive nercrosis + infection
What is Autotransplant?
transplant from same individual, as in your own tissue.
What is Isotransplant?
transplant from a closely related individual, like a sibling or a tissue match
What is homotransplant?
transplant from same species, anybody in general
What is heterotransplant?
transplant from a different species, i.e. pig valves