A field of the study devoted to understanding constancy and change throughout the lifespan.
An orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior.
A process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with.
A process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times.
Qualitative changes in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterize specific periods of development.
Unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that can result in different paths of change.
Nature, we mean inborn biological givens - the hereditary information we receive from our parents at the moment of conception.
Nurture, we mean the complex forces of the physical and social world that influence our biological makeup and psychological experiences before and after birth.
A dynamic systems approach to development that assumes development is lifelong, multidimensional and multidirectional, highly plastic, and affected by multiple interacting forces.
Events that are strongly related to age and therefore fairly predictable in when they occur and how long they last.
Explain why people born around the same time - called a cohort - tend to be alike in ways that set them apart from people born at other times.
Events that are irregular: They happen to just one person or a few people and do not follow a predictable timetable.
Measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals, and are-related averages are computed to represent typical development.
People move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations. How these conflicts are resolved determines the person's ability to learn, to get along with others, and to cope with anxiety.
Emphasizes that how parents manage their child's sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years is crucial for healthy personality development.
Erikson emphasized that in addition to mediating between id impulses and superego demands, the ego makes a positive contribution to development, acquiring attitudes and skills at each stage that make the individual an active, contributing member of society.
Directly observable events - stimuli and responses
Social Learning Theory
Emphasizes modeling (imitation) or observational learning, as a powerful source of development.
consists of procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses.
Children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world.
An approach that views the human mind as a symbol-manipulating system through which information flows and that regards cognitive development as a continuous process.
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Brings together researchers from psychology, biology, neuroscience, and medicine to study the relationship between changes in the brain and the developing person's cognitive processing and behavior patterns.
Concerned with the adaptive, or survival, values of behavior and it's evolutionary history.
A time that is optimal for certain capacities to emerge and in which the individual is especially responsive to environmental influences. However, its boundaries are less well-defined than those of a critical period. Development can occur later, but it is harder to induce.
Evolutionary Developmental Psychology
Seeks to understand the adaptive value of specieswide cognitive, emotional, and social competencies as those competencies change with age.
Focuses on how culture -the values, beliefs, customs, and skills of a social group - is transmitted to the next generation. According to Vygotsky, social interaction - in particular, cooperative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of society - is necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community's culture.
Ecological Systems Theory
Views the person as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment.
The innermost level of the environment.
Consists of activities and interaction patterns in the person's immediate surroundings.
The second level of Bronfenbrenner's model.
Encompasses connections between microsystems.
Consists of social settings that do not contain the developing person but nevertheless affect experiences in immediate settings.
Consists of cultural values, lies, customs, and resources.
Life changes can be imposed externally or, alternatively, can arise from within the person, since individuals select, modify, and create many of their own settings and experiences.
A research method in which the researcher goes into the natural environment to observe the behavior of interest. Distinguished from structured observation.
A method in which the investigator sets up a laboratory situation that evokes the behavior of interest so that every participant has an equal opportunity to display the response. Distinguished from naturalistic observation.
An interview method in which the researcher used a flexible, conversational style to probe for the participant's point of view. Distinguished from structured interview.
An interview method in which each participant is asked the same questions in the same way. Distinguished from clinical interview.
Clinical, or case study, method
A research method in which the aim is to obtain as complete a picture as possible of one individual's psychological functioning by bringing them together interview data, observations, and sometimes test scores.
A method in which the researcher attempts to understand the unique values and social processes of a culture or a distinct social group through participant observation - living with its members and taking field notes for an extended time.
A research design in which the investigator gathers information on individuals without altering their experiences and then examines relationships between participants' characteristics and their behavior or development. Does not permit inferences about cause and effect.
A number that describes how two measures, or variables, are associated with each other.
Permits inferences about cause and effect because researchers use an evenhanded procedure to assign people to two or more treatment conditions.
The one the investigator expects to cause changes in another variable - the variable you manipulate.
The one the investigator expects to be influenced by the independent variable.
An evenhanded procedure for assigning participants to treatment conditions in an experiment, such as drawing numbers out of a hat or flipping a coin. Increases the chances that participants' characteristics will be equally distributed across treatment groups.
A research design in which participants are studied repeatedly, and changes are noted as they get older.
Individuals born in the same time period are influenced by a particular set of historical and cultural conditions. Results based on one cohort may not apply to people developing at other times.
A research design in which groups of participants of different ages are studied at the same point in time. Distinguished from longitudinal design.
A research design in which they conduct several similar cross-sectional or longitudinal studies at varying times.