PSY215 Chapter 1

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  1. Researchers & practitioners whose professional interest lies in the study of the human lifespan.
    Developmentalists (developmental scientists)
  2. The scientific field covering all of the human lifespan.
    Lifespan development
  3. The scientific study of development from birth through adolescence.
    Child development
  4. The scientific study of the aging process and older adults.
  5. The scientific study of the adult part of life.
    Adult development
  6. Predictable life changes that occur during development.
    Normative transitions
  7. Unpredictable or atypical life changes that occur during development.
    Non-normative transitions
  8. Fundamental markers including cohort, socioeconomic status, culture, and gender, that shape how we develop throughout the lifespan.
    Contexts of development
  9. The age group with whom we travel through life.
  10. The huge age group born between 1946 & 1964.
    Baby boom cohort
  11. The phase of life that begins after high school, tapers off toward the late twenties, and is devoted to constructing an adult life.
    Emerging adulthood
  12. A person's fifty-fifty chance at birth of living to a give age.
    Average life expectancy
  13. The dramatic increase in average life expectancy that occurred during the first half of the twentieth century in the developed world.
    Twentieth-century life expectancy revolution
  14. The biological limit of human life (about 105 years).
    Maximum lifespan
  15. People in their 60's & 70's.
  16. People age 80+.
  17. A basic marker referring to status on the educational and - especially - income rungs.
    Socioeconomic status (SES)
  18. The most affluent countries in the world.
    Developed world
  19. The more impoverished countries of the world.
    Developing world
  20. Societies that prize social harmony, obedience, and close family connectedness over individual achievement.
    Collectivist cultures
  21. Societies that prize independence, competition and personal success.
    Individualistic cultures
  22. Any perspective explaining why people act the way they do, allowing us to predict behavior and also suggest how to intervene to improve behavior.
  23. Biological or genetic causes of development.
  24. Environmental causes of development.
  25. The original behavioral world-view that focused on charting and modifying only "objective," visible behaviors.
    Traditional behaviorism
  26. According to the traditional behavioral perspective, the law of learning that determines any voluntary response.  Specifically, we act the way we do because we are reinforced for acting in that way.
    Operant conditioning
  27. Behavioral term for reward.
  28. A behavioral worldview that emphasizes that people learn by watching others and that our thoughts about the reinforcers determine our behavior.  Focuses on charting and modifying people's thoughts.
    Cognitive behaviorism (social learning theory)
  29. Learning by watching and imitating others.
  30. According to cognitive behaviorism, an internal belief in our competence that predicts whether we initiate activities or persist in the face of failures, and predicts the goals we set.
  31. Theory formulated by John Bowlby centering on the crucial importance to our species' survival of being closely connected with a caregiver during early childhood and being attached to a significant other during all of life.
    Attachment theory
  32. Theory of worldview highlighting the role that inborn, species-specific behaviors play in human development and life.
    Evolutionary psychology
  33. Field devoted to scientifically determining the role that hereditary forces play in determining individual differences in behavior.
    Behavioral genetics
  34. Behavioral genetic research strategy, designed to determine the genetic contribution of a given trait, that involves comparing identical twins with fraternal twins (or with other people).
    Twin study
  35. Behavioral genetic research strategy, designed to determine the genetic contribution to a given trait, that involves comparing adopted children with their biological and adoptive parents.
    Adoption study
  36. Behavioral genetic research strategy that involves comparing the similarities of identical twin pairs adopted into different families, to determine the genetic contribution to a given trait.
    Twin/adoption studies
  37. The nature-interacts-with-nurture principle that our genetic temperamental tendencies and predispositions evoke, or produce, certain responses from other people.
    Evocative forces
  38. The crucial principle that people affect one another, or that interpersonal influences flow in both directions.
  39. The nature-interacts-with-nurture principle that our genetic temperamental tendencies and predispositions cause us to actively choose to put ourselves into specific environments.
    Active forces
  40. The extent to which the environment is tailored to our biological tendencies and talents.  In developmental science, fostering this fit between our talents and the wider world is an important goal.
    Person-environment fit
  41. Jean Piaget's principle that from infancy to adolescence, children progress through 4 qualitatively different stages of intellectual growth.
    Piaget's cognitive developmental theory
  42. In Jean Piaget's theory, the first step promoting mental growth, involving fitting environmental input to our existing mental capacities.
  43. In Piaget's theory, enlarging our mental capacities to fit input from the wider world.
  44. Erik Erikson's theory that each challenge that we face as we travel through the 8 stages of the lifespan.
    Erikson's psychosocial tasks
  45. An all-encompassing outlook on development that stresses the need to embrace a variety of theories, and the idea that all systems and processes interrelate.
    Developmental systems perspective
  46. A research strategy that involves relating 2+ variables.
    Correlational study
  47. A group that reflects the characteristics of the overall population.
    Representative sample
  48. A measurement strategy that involves directly watching and coding behaviors.
    Naturalistic observation
  49. A measurement strategy that involves having people report on their feeling and activities through questionnaires.
    Self-report strategy
  50. The only research strategy that can determine that something causes something else; involves randomly assigning people to different treatments and then looking at the outcome.
    True experiments
  51. A developmental research strategy that involves testing different age groups a the same time.
    Cross-sectional study
  52. A developmental research strategy that involves testing an age group repeatedly over many years.
    Longitudinal study
  53. Standard developmental science data-collection strategy that involves testing groups of people and using numerical scales & statistics.
    Quantitative research
  54. Occasional developmental science data-collection strategy that involves interviewing people to obtain information that cannot be quantified on a numerical scale.
    Qualitative research
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PSY215 Chapter 1

Experiencing the Lifespan Belsky Chapter 1 vocabulary
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