Developmental Psychology Chpt. 2 Vocab

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NikkiStewart21
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Developmental Psychology Chpt. 2 Vocab
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2013-01-12 01:42:45
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Developmental Psychology Vocabulary
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Developmental Psychology Chpt. 2 Vocabulary
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  1. Phenotypes
    An individual's directly observable physical and behavioral characteristics, which are determined by both genetic and environmental factors. Distinguished from genotype.
  2. Genotype
    The complex blend of genetic information that determines our species and influences all our unique characteristics.
  3. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
    The chemical substance that chromosomes are made up of.
  4. Gene
    A segment of DNA along the length of the chromosome.
  5. Mitosis
    The process of cell duplication, in which each new cell receives an exact copy of the original chromosomes.
  6. Gametes
    Sex cells - the sperm or ovum.
  7. Meiosis
    A cell division process that gametes are formed through which halves the number of chromosomes normally present in body cells.
  8. Zygote
    The resulting cell when sperm and ovum unite at conception.
  9. Autosomes
    The 22 matching chromosome pairs in each human cell.
  10. Sex Chromosomes
    The 23rd pair of chromosomes; which determines the sex of the individual.
  11. Fraternal Twins (or Dizygotic Twins) 
    The most common type of multiple birth, resulting from the release and fertilization of two ova.
  12. Identical Twins (or Monozygotic Twins)
    A zygote that has started to duplicate seperates into two clusters of cells that develop into two individuals. They have the same genetic makeup.
  13. Allele
    Each of two or more forms of a gene located at the same place on corresponding pairs of chromosomes.
  14. Homozygous
    Having two identical alleles at the same place on a pair of chromosomes. Distinguished from heterozygous. (If the alleles from both parents are alike).
  15. Heterozygous
    Having two different alleles at the same place on a pair of chromosomes. Distinguished from homozygous. (Relationships between alleles determine the trait that will appear).
  16. Dominant-Recessive Inheritance
    A pattern of inheritance in which, under heterozygous conditions, the influence of only one allele is apparent. (This is called the dominant; the second allele, which has no effect is called recessive).
  17. Carrier
    A heterozygous individual who can pass a recessive trait to his or her offspring.
  18. Incomplete Dominance
    A pattern of inheritance in which both alleles are expressed, resulting in a combined trait, or one that is intermediate between the two.
  19. X-linked Inheritance
    When a harmful allele is carried on the X chromosome. (Males are more likely to be affected because their sex chromosomes do not match.)
  20. Genomic Imprinting
    A pattern of inheritance in which alleles are imprinted, or chemically marked, in such a way that one pair member is activated, regardless of it's makeup.
  21. Mutation
    A sudden change in a segment of DNA.
  22. Polygenic Inheritance
    A pattern of inheritance in which many genes influence a characteristic.
  23. Genetic Counseling
    A communication process designed to help couples understand genetic principles, genetic testing, and prevention of genetic disorders; assess their chances of giving birth to a baby with a hereditary disorder; and choose the best course of action in view of risks and family goals.
  24. Prenatal Diagnostic Methods
    Medical procedures that permit detection of problems before birth.
  25. Socioeconomic Status (SES)
    A measure of an individual's or a family's social position and economic well-being that combines three related, but not completely overlapping, variables: years of education, prestige of and skill required by one's job, and income.
  26. Subcultures
    Groups of people with beliefs and customs that differ from those of the larger culture.
  27. Extended Family Households
    When three or more generations live together.
  28. Collectivist Societies
    People define themselves as part of a group and stress group goals over individual goals.
  29. Individualistic Societies
    People think of themselves as separate entities and are largely concerned with their own personal needs.
  30. Public Policies
    Laws and government programs designed to improve current conditions.
  31. Heritability Estimates
    Measure the extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a specific population are due to genetic factors.
  32. Kinship Studies
    Compare the characteristics of family members.
  33. Range of Reaction
    Each person's unique, genetically determined response to the environment.
  34. Canalization
    The tendency of heredity to restrict the development of some characteristics to just one or a few outcomes.
  35. Genetic-environmental correlation
    Our genes influence the environments to which we are exposed.
  36. Niche-picking
    The tendency to actively choose environments that complement our heredity.
  37. Epigenesis
    Development resulting from ongoing, bidirectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of the environment.

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