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What are the functions of the nervous system?
-controls a majority of functions throughout the body via voluntary and involuntary muscle signaling. Controls sesnory areas (sight, hearing, smelling, and touch) and regulatory areas (hypothalamus and piuitary control the endocrine system).
-interprets electrical signals and makes decisions about what to do
What are the associated organs of the nervous system?
brain, spinal cord, eyes, and ears
What are the related body systems to the nervous system?
endocrine, respiratory, digestive, digestive, urinary, lymphatic, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal
What the function of the endocrine system?
- secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream to help maintain homeostasis by regulating reproduction, growth and development, metabolism, blood glucose levels, stress, and ovulation
What are the assoicated organs of the endocrine system?
hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and parathyroid, thymus, adrenal, pancreas, ovaries, and testes
What are the related body systems of the endocrine system?
*all body systems are assisted by the endocrine system either directly or indirectly when hormones are released that influence the body's functions.
What is the function of the cardiovascular system?
Brings oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and white blood cells to body structures and takes toxins away -- by pumping blood
What are the associated body organs of the cardiovascular system?
heart and blood vessles
What are the related body systems of the cardiovascular systems?
respiratory, urinary, nervous, musculoskeletal, lymphatic, and digestive
What are the functions of the lymphatic system?
- transports excess fluid from tissues back into the blood
- aborbs fats from the villi int eh small intestines and transports it to the bloodstream
- protects the body from infection
What are the assoicated organs of the lymphatic system?
lymph nodes, spleen, bone, marrow, and thymus
What are the related body systems of the lymphatic system?
nervous, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal
What are the functions of the musculoskeletal system?
- provide support and protection for the internal organs
- - Allow movement
- a. marrow produces blood cells
- b. stores minerals and releases them as the body needs them
- a. contacts the heart
- b. contracts when walking, moves the blood through veins against the effects of gravity
- c. moves food through the GI tract
- d. helps maintain body temperature by generating heat
What are the associated organs of the musculoskeletal system?
bones and muscles
What are the related body systems of the musculoskeletal system?
urinary, circulatory, lymphatic, nervous, and respiratory
What is the function of the reproductive system?
- produce new life
What are the associated organs of the reproductive system?
vagina, cervix, uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, prostate, testes, vas deferens
What are the related body system of the reproductive system?
What is the function of the digestive system?
- metabolizes ingested food, transfers nutrients, and eliminates waste
What are the asscoiated organs of the digestive sytem?
mouth, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, small and large bowels, anus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
What are the related body systems of the digestive system?
nervous, musculoskeletal, and cardiovascular
What are the assoicated organs of the urinary system?
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
What are the related body systems of the urinary system?
nervous, musculoskeletal, and cardiovascular
What is the function of the respiratory system?
supples oxygen to the blood and eliminates carbon dioxide
What are the assoicated organs of the respiratory system?
pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
Whata re the related body system's of the respiratory system?
nervous and cardiovascular
What is the central nervous sytem?
It's the processing area of the nervous system. Responsible for receiving, interpreting, and responding to electrical signals from the peripheral nervous system.
The ______ and the ______ ____ of the central nervous system are well protected by teh cranial vault and the spinal column of teh skeleton, which surround the structures like protective armor
The brain and spinal cord are covered by the ________.
What are the 3 layers of the meninges?
- pia matter: innermost layer
- arachnoid: middle layer
- dura mater: outer layer (against the innersurface of the cranium and vertebra)
What is the main function of the peripheral nervous system?
to connect the central nervous system with the limbs and organs--to relay information from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body, as well as from the body to the spinal cord and brain.
The peripheral nerves carry out voluntary and involuntary actions that are divided into the _______ and ________ systems.
somatic and autonomic
What is the somatic system?
all conscious awareness of our external environment (voluntary) and all movement (through skeletal muscle).
What is the autonomic system?
Not under conscious control (involuntary). Monitors our internal environment and the function of the glands and organs. Also controls the contractions of smooth muscle.
The autonomic system has two subdivisions called the _______ and the ________.
sympathetic and parasympathetic
What does the sympathetic divsion do?
- responds to stress or impending danger (fright or flight)
- signals the adrenal glands ro release adrenaline in the bloodstream, which stimulates all the cells int he body to prepare for an emergency.
- physiological changes occur, such as an increase in the heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure, along with the shunting of the blood to the muscles--all to help the body cope with the high stress situation
What does the parasympathetic division do?
- maintains and restores the body's energy.
- follows sympathetic stimulation and works to return body functions to normal.
- signals the reduction output of adrenaline, drecrease heart and breathing rate
What is the endocrine system?
- It's a collection of glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream to arrive at target organs.
- Utilizes long-term coordination of chemical signals to help maintain homeostasis by regulating body functions that include reproduction, growth and development, metabolism, blood glucose levels, stress response, and ovulation
The endocrine system is often referred to as the ________ _______ because the hypothalamus of the brain directs and monitors endocrine functions
What gland is considered the master gland?
________ transfers instructions from one set of cells to another.
The cardiovascular system is
- the heart and circulatry system.
- the heart works as a pump that pushes blood through a network of arteries and veins responsible for delivering blood, oxygen, and nutrients to every cell and removing the carbon dioxide and waste products made by cells
The cadriovascular system has two specific funtions:
- pulmonary circulation: transports blood from the heart to the lungs and back again
- systemic circulation: transports blood from the heart to all parts of the body (except the lungs) and back again
The vascular components of the cardiovascular system are the _____ and ___________
veins and arteries
_________ are thick-walled blood vessles that transport oxygenated blood away from the heart
* two exceptations are the umbilical arteries and the pulmonary artery
The ______ is the main artery leaving the heart
______ and thin-walled vessels that transport deoxygenated blood to the heart
*two exceptations the umbilical veins and the pulmonary vein
Describe the steps of pulmonary circulation
- the deoxygenated blood returns first to the heart via the superior and inferior vena cava that enter the right artrium
- the deoxygenated blood is pumped through the tricuspid valve into the heart's right ventricle
- the blood then flows through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the main pulmonary artery
- the deoxygenated blood is then transported to the lungs where the red blood cells exchange the carbon dioxide and waste for oxygen
- the now oxygenated blood leaves the lungs through the pulmonary vein which transports it to the left atrium ending the pulmonary circulation
Describe the systemic circulation
- the oxygenated blood in the left atrium is pumped into the left ventricle through the bicuspid valve
- from the left ventricle the blood passes through the semilunar aortic valve to enter the aorta
- the aorta arches superiorly to give off branches to supply the upper body
- then descends through the thoracic cavity and going through the diaphragm to enter the abdominopelvic cavity
- the abdominal branches off the aorta to supply the lower body
- these branches also branch off decreasing in size to the small arterioles and capillaries
- the venules then collect the carbon dioxide and waste from the arterioles and capillaries and bring them to the larger veins
- these larger veins then bring the now deoxygenates blood to the superior and inferior vena cava which then brings the deoxygenated blood back to the right atrium
What are the numbered structures?
- 1. superior vena cava
- 2. pulmonary artery
- 3. pulmonary vein
- 4. aorta
What are the numbered structures?
- 1. superior vena cava
- 2. aorta
- 3. pulmonary arteries
- 4. pulmonary veins
- 5. left atrium
- 6. left ventricle
- 7. right ventricle
- 8. inferior vena cava
- 9. right atrium
The heart is a specialized muscle called _______
The pumping action of teh heart isn't controlled by the brain; rather it's caused by a flow of _______ through the heart that's triggered by the heart's ________ _______
- sinoatrial node (SA node)
The SA node is known as the heart's _______
What does the SA node do?
it emits regular electrical impulses from the right atrium that caus both artira to contract and pump blood into the ventricles.
The electrical impulses from the SA node travel to the ventricles through the __________ _______.
antroventricular node (AV node)
What does the AV node do?
- AV node serves as the heart's circuit breaker in case teh SA node impulses comes too quickly.
- causes the muscles to contract and pump blood from the right ventricle into the lungs and from the left ventricle into the body
Normal heart rate is
70 - 90 beats/minute
The pumping, or contracting, phase of the heart is called
The filling, or relaxing, phase of the heart is called
What does teh lymphatic system do?
- collection and transportation of excess fluids from the interstitial spaces of the body back into the veins in the bloodstream
- absorption of fats from the small intestine, which are then transported to the liver
- immune system functions that utilize lymphoid tissue and organs to produce cells that fight and dispose of foreign material
________ is intersitial fluid consisting of digested fats, water, protein, white blood cells, and tissue waste.
Describe the transportation of lymph
- small capillaries drain lymp from the head, abdominopelvic cavity, organs and extremities into the lymphatic vessles
- the lymphatic vessles transport the lymph to its destination in the thorax
- along its path, the lymph passes through lymph nodes where the fluid is filtered of foreign material
- once in the thorax, lymp is emptied into large veins at the base of the neck and also just superior to the heart
_______ are lymphatic vessels located in the GI tract lining
What do lacteals do?
They pickup fats that are transported via the lymphatic vessels directly back into the bloodstream
What is lymphoid tissue?
- connective tisue and a variety of white blood cells, primarily lymphocytes
- responsible for immune function, defending the body against infection and disease
_______ ____ are areas of concentrated lymphocytes and macrophages
What are lymphoid organs?
the thymus and bone marrow that produce and store lymphocytes (B cells and T cells), monocytes, and leukocytes until they are mature enough to be transported to the lymph nodes, tonsils, adenoids, and the blood
The _____ filters the blood and lymph
What si the musculoskeletal system composed of?
skeleton (206 adult bones), skeletal muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments, connective tissue, and cartilage.
The skeleton is characterized as ________ and _______ skeleton
axial and appendicular
_______ skeleton consist of the skull, spine, and ribs
The _________ skeleton consists of bones that form the appendages
________ ______ give form and stabilty to the skeleton and enable it to move voluntarily
Skeletal muscles are also called _____ ______
What are tendons?
they are at the end of each skeletal muscle where the collagen fibers of the endomysium, perimysium, and epimysium come together
Tendons attach muscles to _______
Different parts of the skeleton are joined to one another at connections called ______
Joints can be
immovable, slightly movable, or freely movable
________ are tough bands of elastic fibers that extend between the bones
Ligaments connect _______ to ______
bone to bone
The muscles and skeleton work together to provide the body with vital functions tha include...
- movement:produced when the skeletal muscles contract to bend the skeleton at movble joints
- protection: provide protection from external forces by covering internal organs
- hematapoiesis: blood cell production in the bone marrow
- mineral homeostasis: the release or aborption of calcium, sodium, and potassium
What are the gonads?
male testes and femal ovaries
What is the main goal of the goal of the reproductive sytem?
for the gonads to produce gametes whose union is the basis of producing new life
_______ is a long coiled tube located next to each testis, where the spermatoza mature and receive nourishment
___ ______ is an extension from the epididymis joined by the seminal vesicle before becoming the ejaculatory duct; serves to transport sperm from the epididymis to the urethra.
What is the ejaculatory duct?
the site whre sperm mixes with the nourishing, suspending fluids secreted from the seminal vesicles to form semen, which is transported through the prostate gland, where it receives more secretions, promoting sperm motility, and then joins the prostatic urethra and eits the penis via the urethra
What is the scrotum?
the exterior sac of skin containing the testes that is capable of protraction and retraction to maintain a constant state of temperature, which aids spermatoza production
________ ______ is the site of ova maturation
What does the pituitary gland release during he sencond half of the menstural cycle?
luteinizing hormone (LH)
______ occurs when the follicle bursts and releases the mature ovum
What does the corpus luteum do?
releases proestrogen and a small amount of estrogen to further prepare the uterus for possible impantation by a zygote
_______ ____ are long, slender tubes that extend bilaterally from the uterus toward teh ovary on the same side
What do the fallopian tubes do?
transport the released mature ovum toward the uterine cavity
What happems if fertilization doesn't occur?
- the ovum degenerates
- the hypothalamus instructs the pituitary to stop releasing LH
- the corpus luteum maintenance is disrupted
- menstruation begins
What happens if fertilization does occur?
- the corpus luteum continues to be maintained
- menstruation is supressed
- as pregnancy continues, the corpus luteum takes on a cystic composition
- the hormone BhCG can now be detected via blood or urine for pregnancy testing
What are the three parts that make up the small bowel?
duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
What does the small bowel do?
responsible for completing the digetive process through the release of its own digestive enzymes and absorbing substances such as nutrients and minerals across its surface
The digestive process in the duodenum is assited by the introduction of ___ and pancreatic enzymes
What is bile?
a thick fluid that aids in digestion by neutralizing stomach acid and breaking down fat
Digestion is completed in the ______ and ________
duodenum and jejunum
Absorption of the nutrients and minerals takes place in the _______ and the _______ and enters the bloodstream, which transports it to the liver.
jejunum and ileum
________ is the worm like movement that moves the contents along into the large bowel
The large bowel is also know as the _______
The colon has five parts. What are they?
cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid
What is the large bowel responsible for?
- absorbing the remaining water from the indigestible contents
- assist in maintaining the body's fluid level
- transporting through the remainder of teh colon and rectum and finally the anus to be expelled
Bacteria in the colon act on the remaining contents which break down into the final solid waste called ______
What are the main functions of the urinary system?
- regulate blood volume and composition
- regulate blood pressure
- produce red blood cells
______ is composed of waste products such as urea, ammonia, bilirubin, drugs, and toxins
Blood pressure us regulated by the urinary system by:
- controlling blood volume
- adjusting the flow of bloo into and out of the kidneys
- secreting renin, an enzyme that helps contol blood pressure
The kidneys release ________, a hormone notifying the bone marrow to increase production of red blood cells when inadequate oygen levels are detected in the blood
What are nephrons?
filtering units in the kidneys
Each nephrons has a ________, a cluster or ball of capillaries derived from an arteriole
The glomerculus is contained within a capsule called ________ _______
Describe the filtration process in the kidneys
- glomerculus releases water and dissolved waste from the blood into the capsule and then through to the tubule
- inside the tubule, glucose, salts, amino acids, and any other substances that the body might require are aborbed back into the bloodstream
- what remains in the tube becomes urine
- urine flows through the series of collecting tubes, the renal pelvis that connects to the ureter, and on into the bladder
The ________ is commonly known as the throat
Both _____ and ____ travel through the pharynx on their way to the trachea and esophagus respectively
air and food
Food in the pharynx is prevented from entering the trachea by the ______
The _______ lies between the pahrynx and the trachea
The larynx is also know as the _______
The trachea is commonly known as the _________
The ______ formed by the division of the trachea are held open by cartilaginous rings in their wall
As the brochi enter the lungs, the branch out and divide and subdivide into ______
What are alveoli?
cup-shaped cavities that inflate with the inhaled air and exchange it for carbon dioxide from the adjacent blood capillaries. Exhalation causes the alveoli to deflate, and reverse air flow expels the carbon dioxide waste from the body
The lungs are enclosed by a double-walled sac called the ______