Psychology Midterm <a href=http://download.cnet.com/YouTube-To-MP3/3000-2071

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Psychology Midterm <a href=http://download.cnet.com/YouTube-To-MP3/3000-2071
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  1. Which of theses is the most accurate definition of the discipline of psychology?
    a. the science of behavior
    b. the science of mental processes
    c. the science of behavior and mental processes
    d. the science of human behavior and mental processes
    c. the science of behavior and mental processes
  2. Sallie noticed that when her alarm clock goes off in the morning her dog, Ruffles, is standing by her bed salivating. Every morning when Sallie wakes to the alarm, she immediately rolls out of bed and feeds Ruffles who very much much enjoys his canned dog food. It is likely that              .
    a. Sallie has coordinated Ruffles to enjoy canned dog food
    b. Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to sleep next to her bed
    c. Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to salivate over canned dog food
    d. Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to salivate to the sound of her alarm clock
    d. Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to salivate to the sound of her alarm clock
  3. You attend a lecture by a psychologist who uses terms such as free will and self-actualization. Which psychological perspective is most consistent with the points the psychologist presented?
    a. behaviorism
    b. humanism
    c. functionalism
    d. psychodynamics
    b. humanism
  4. In 1879, in Leipzig, Germany, the first psychological laboratory was over seen by               .
    a. William James
    b. William Tell
    c. Wilhelm Wundt
    d. Sigmund Freud
    c. Wilhelm Wundt
  5. Which type of early psychologist believed that "the whole is more than the sum of its parts"?
    a. Gestaltist
    b. behaviorism
    c. structuralist
    d. functionalist
    a. Gestaltist
  6. Gestalt psychology attempted to discover
    a. how the mind helped people adapt to the world
    b. the overall patterns of perceptions and thoughts
    c. the basic building blocks of consciousness
    d. the unconscious motivations for human functioning
    b. the overall patterns of perceptions and thoughts
  7. The work of Freud was build around                 .
    a. a theory of personality that emphasizes the awareness of one's own cognitive processes
    b. a theory of personality that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts
    c. a method of psychotherapy in which an observer carefully records and interprets behavior without interfering with the behavior
    d. a method of psychotherapy that emphasizes how maladaptive behaviors are learned through imitations of others and through cognitive expectations
    b. a theory of personality that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts
  8. The school of behaviorism attempted to explain behavior by studying
    a. the reasons people give for their behaviors.
    b. the specific personality traits that lead to behavior.
    c. how a specific stimulus evokes a specific response.
    d. the purposes of people's behavior.
    c. how a specific stimulus evokes a specific response.
  9. Suppose you were a graduate student studying for a Ph.D. in psychology in the 1920s. Your advisor was strongly influenced by John B. Watson. Which of the following might your advisor consider an acceptable choice for your research?
    a. a survey of daydreams
    b. an analysis of how specific behaviors are acquired
    c. a survey of sexual imagery in dreams of men and womend. an analysis of the thought processes students report while answering test items
    b. an analysis of how specific behaviors are acquired
  10. Professor Wenches approaches questions about human behavior from a perspective that emphasizes unconscious processes within the individual, such as inner forces or conflicts. It is most likely that she accepts which of the following psychological approaches?
    a. social-cognitive learning
    b. learning
    c. cognitive approach
    d. psychodynamic approach 
    d. psychodynamic approach 
  11. If you are interested in how patterns, beliefs, and customs influence behavior, you are interested in the                 perspective.
    a. behavioral
    b. sociocultural
    c. psychodynamic
    d. cognitive
    b. sociocultural
  12. Jeff's car broke down and smoke started rising from the engine. He felt lucky to have broken down while parked in the center of town during lunch when many people were outside and could help. However, 30 minutes has passed and despite the heavily populated area, nobody has offered assistance. This is an example of the                  .
    a. zeitgeist
    b. behaviorist effect
    c. bystander effect
    d. self-Serving Prophecy
    c. bystander effect
  13. Darley and Latane (1968) believe that the presence of other people in a distressing situation decreased the likelihood that they would receive help due to                        .
    a. diffusion of anonymity
    b. diffusion of responsibility
    c. flaws in laws protecting Good Samaritans
    d. timeliness of onset
    b. diffusion of responsibility
  14. Professor Beverly approaches questions about human behavior from a perspective that emphasizes bodily events and chemicals, such as hormones, associated with behavior. It is most likely that she accepts which of the following psychological approaches?
    a. biopsychological
    b. learning
    c. cognitive
    d. sociocultural
    a. biopsychological
  15. Dr. Braunz has been treating a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. She decides towrite a prescription for Ritalin. Given this information, it is most likely that Dr. Braunz is a                      .
    a. psychiatrist
    b. psychoanalyst
    c. humanistic psychologist
    d. school psychologist
    a. psychiatrist
  16.                              is a system used for reducing bias and error in the measurement of data.
    a. Statistics
    b. The scientific method
    c. Checks and balances
    d. The double-blind method
    b. The scientific method
  17. The tendency to look for information that supports one's own belief is called                  .
    a. the principle of falsifiability
    b. confirmation bias
    c. criterion validity
    d. volunteer bias
    b. confirmation bias
  18. What is one of the major reasons that psychologists report results publicly?
    a. to comply with legal requirements
    b. to identify all the extraneous variables
    c. to allow researchers to replicate experiments
    d. to explain research results so that non-psychologists can understand them
    c. to allow researchers to replicate experiments
  19. Roger went to McDonald's to observe people eating in fast-food restaurants. He brought a camera crew and bright lights, and they all wore yellow jump suits. Roger said he wanted to do a naturalistic observation but may have had some problems because of                                   .
    a. room crowding
    b. observer effects
    c. participant observation
    d. eating McDonald's food
    b. observer effects
  20. In the 1970s, a 13-year-old girl was found locked up in a room, strapped t a potty chair. Since she had grown up in a world without human speech, researchers studied "Genie's" ability to acquire words, grammar, and pronunciation. This type of research is called                       .
    a. a case study
    b. a representative sample
    c. a single-blind study
    d. a naturalistic observation
    a. a case study
  21. The magazine Desperate Wives publishes a survey of its female readers called "The Sex Life of the American Wife." It reports that 87 percent of all wives like to make love in rubber boots. A more accurate title for this survey would be                       .
    a. "Rubber Boot Preferences and the American Wife"
    b. "The New Sexuality in America: Rubber Boots in Bed!"
    c. "The Sex Lives of Our Readers: Desperate Wives Women Respond"
    d. "Sex in America: These Boots Were Made for Walking and for..."
    c. "The Sex Lives of Our Readers: Desperate Wives Women Respond"
  22. What is one of the major reasons that psychologists use operational definitions?
    a. to comply with legal requirements
    b. to identify all the extraneous variables
    c. so that effects can be measured
    d. to explain research results so that non-psychologists can understand
    c. so that effects can be measured
  23. A researcher is investigating the effects of exercise on weight. What are the independent and dependent variables in this experiment?
    a. The dependent variable is weight; the independent variable is exercise.
    b. The independent variable is calories consumed; the dependent variable is diet.
    c. The independent variable weight; the dependent variable is calories consumed.
    d. The dependent variable is amount of exercise; the independent variable is calories consumed.
    a. The dependent variable is weight; the independent variable is exercise.
  24. Independent variable is to dependent variable as                  .
    a. effect is to confound
    b. experimental is to correlation
    c. measure is to manipulate
    d. manipulate is to measure
    d. manipulate is to measure
  25. In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the dependent variable is                        .
    a. the use of nicotine
    b. the use of a driving simulator
    c. the number of collisions
    d. the driving skills of each driver
    c. the number of collisions
  26. In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the cigarette without nicotine is                  .
    a. the control group
    b. the driving simulator
    c. the experimental group
    d. the no-control group
    a. the control group
  27. Ideally, everything in the experimental situation except the                  is held constant.
    a. inferential statistics
    b. placebos
    c. independent variables
    d. hypotheses
    c. independent variables
  28. The placebo effects means                     .
    a. all conditions in an experiment are the same
    b. that there is no control group
    c. the expectancy of the participants influence their behavior
    d. experimenter bias causes the subjects to act strangely
    c. the expectancy of the participants influence their behavior
  29. Two groups of graduate students were students were given rats and were told to teach them how to run mazes. Group 1 was told that they had "very smart" rats that should learn quickly. Group 2 was told that they had " very stupid" rats that should learn slowly. In actuality, neither group was any different and the rats were randomly assigned. In spite of that, when the experiment concluded, Group 1 rats had learned the maze much more quickly. How can that be explained?
    a. experimenter effect
    b. placebo effect
    c. subject bias
    d. treatment effect
    a. experimenter effect
  30. Humanist Abraham Maslow suggests that when people self-actualize they
    a. develop to their fullest potential
    b. avoid negative consequences of behavior
    c. seek maximum reward for all their behaviors
    d. learn from their mistakes and move on
    a. develop to their fullest potential
  31. The class is playing a game of Jeopardy! and it is your turn. "I'll take Specialties in Psychology for $300." The revealed answer is "These psychological professionals work with situations in which environmental conditions may have an impact on mental health." Just before the buzzer sounds, what will you say?
    a. "What is a neuropsychologist?"
    b. "What is a forensic psychologist?"
    c. "What is a psychiatric social worker?"
    d. "What is a developmental psychologist?"
    c. "What is a psychiatric social worker?"
  32. Which of the following statements is true about naturalistic observation?
    a. It recreates natural conditions in the laboratory as closely as possible to make an experiment more valid
    b. It involves observing behavior in its natural context.
    c. It is basically the same process as objective introspection.
    d. It involves observing
    b. It involves observing behavior in its natural context.
  33. Adaris has always been drawn to the saying "Absence makes the heart grow fonder," and she decides to incorporate this saying into her research project. She is attempting to find an appropriate                   .
    a. hypothesis
    b. operational definition
    c. double-blind study
    d. theory
    b. operational definition

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