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  1. Enzymes
    Proteins that control biochemical reactions
  2. Lactase
    Enzyme that breaks down glucose
  3. Catalase
    Enzyme that turns hydrogen peroxide into water (think about the liver experiments)
  4. DNA helicase
    Enzyme that unzips the DNA double helix in DNA replication
  5. DNA polymerase
    2nd enzyme needed in replication to fuse the free floating nucleotide to the complimentary DNA strands. Essentially glues it back together.
  6. RNA polymerase
    Builds mRNA onto the sense strand using the complimentary nucleotides
  7. Primary structure (of protein)
    Sequence of amino acids coded by DNA, formed by RNA and held together by peptide bonds.
  8. Secondary structure (of a protein)
    The regular folding of the amino acid chain.
  9. Types of Secondary structures
    • Alpha helix (like curls)
    • Beta pleated sheets (folded on top of itself)
  10. Teritary structure (of a protein)
    Irregular/sporadic folding of he secondary structures, creating glob like proteins. Side (R) group decides
  11. Quaternary structure (of a protein)
    • Not in all structures
    • Interaction between two strong proteins
  12. Ways to denature (break down protein)
    • 1. Change pH value
    • 2. Change Chemical gradiant
    • 3. Change Temperature
    • Must break quadtrinary, tertiary, seconday primary (in that order)
  13. Protein folding
    The process of how the protein obtains its 3-D shape determined by the amino acid sequence
  14. Misfolded proteins
    Can be ineffective or develop different/toxic functions
  15. Amino Acid interactions
    20 kinds all interact differently, some attract some repel
  16. Cholera causes
    Feces/contaminated water supplies
  17. Cholera symptoms
    Dehydration, turning blue, lowers blood pressure and thickens blood
  18. Cholera transmission
    • Lives on bodies of copepods.
    • Cross contamination
  19. Cholera treatment
    • Cholorine
    • Rehydration
  20. Cholera binding sites
    Binds to small intestine
  21. Types of cholera
    • Classic Strain (Rare, treated by cholorine)
    • El Tor Strain (most common, mild cholorine resistance
    • Bengal strain (most deadly, resistant to cholorine)
  22. Binding sites
    Place where the enzyme can attach to a compound and react with it.
  23. Lytic cycle (reproduction of virus)
    Attachs, inserts gene, makes cell burst. (faster)
  24. Lysogenic reproduction of cells
    Not immediate, genes inserted and reproduced with the cell.
  25. Virus characteristics
    Not a cell, genetic material surrounded by proteins
  26. Life cycle
    Takes over a cell to reproduce.
  27. Budding
    When a new virus comes off from a cell.
  28. Viral binding sites
    using the lock a key method the virus gets into the cell through the proteins on the surface.
  29. Lysis
    Destruction of the cell allow the insides to escape (such as new viruses)
  30. Four main types of biomolecules
    • Lipids
    • Carbohydrates
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic acid
  31. Lipids
    • Function: Source of energy
    • Structure: 2 molecules: gycerol, 3 fatty acid tails made from C and H
    • Examples: Saturated and unsaturated
  32. Carbohydrates
    • Function: Structural components for some organisms
    • Structure: Monosaccharide, Disaccharide, Polysaccharide
    • Examples : Glucose, sucrose, Glycogen
  33. Monosaccharides
    • Smalles unit of sugar, 3-8 atoms
    • Ex. Glucose
  34. Disaccharide
    • Combo of 2 simple sugars
    • Ex. Sucrose
  35. Polysaccharide
    • Many sugars in a chain
    • Ex. Glycogen
  36. Balanced diets
    Important to maintain body weight and get necessary nutritients.
  37. Metabolism
    Web of chemical reactions in your body depend on metabolism
  38. Catabolism
    Breaking down biomolecules (also generate ATP)
  39. Anabolism
    Process of creating new biomolecules for yourself
  40. Aerobic respiration steps
    • 1. Glycolsis 2 ATP net
    • 2. Kreb cycle 2 ATP net
    • 3. Electron transport chain 32 ATP net
    • 36 total ATP
  41. Anaerobic respiration
    Glycolysis only 2 ATP net
  42. Importance of oxygen and glucose in respiration
    Oxygen breaks down glucose which releases energy. Oxygen is also the last electron acceptor
  43. Anerobic vs. aerobic respiration
    Aerobic is more efficent and nets 36 ATP total while anaerobic only nets 2
  44. Glycolsis
    8 steps in which glucose is broken down into 2 pyruvates (-2ATP +4ATP=2net)
  45. Pyruvate
    Half of a glucose
  46. Kreb Cycle
    Step after glycolisis when pyruvates enter the cycle to net 2 more ATP
  47. Electron Transport Chain
    Electrons lead through the protein chain create energy forcing H+ into the membrane, then the electrons go through the protein pump. 32 net ATP
  48. Lactic acid
    Bi-product of anerobic respiration from the pyruvates
  49. Carbon dixoide
    Bi-product of respiration
  50. ATP
    Energy created from respiration
  51. Photosynthesis
    Process a plant performs using sunlight, water carbon dioxide to create energy/nutrients
  52. Light Dependant Reaction (Photosynthesis)
    • 1. Sunlight absorbed by chlorophyll in leaves
    • 2. Energy breaks down water into hydrogen/oxygen
    • 3. Electrons in water gain energy
    • 4. Electrons make ATP (Adenonsine Tri-Phosphate)
    • 5. Oxygen released through stomata
  53. Light Independatn reaction(photosynthesis)
    • Already have ATP/CO2
    • 1. ATP breaks down carbon dioxide bonds
    • 2. Hydrogens, oxygens, carbons rebonded forming glucose
    • 3. Glucose used/stored
  54. Prokaryotic cell
    Bacterial, no nucleus, simpler
  55. Eukaryotic
    Plant/Animal cell with a nucleus
  56. Ways cells get nutrients from the environment
    • Photosynthesis
    • Other plants/animals
    • Absorb through cell walls/membranes
  57. Parasites
    • Organisms living at the expense of their hosts
    • ex. Tapeworms, protozoa (plasmodia causing malaria)
    • Treatment: interfere with metabolism of parasite/kill it
  58. How do parasites harm their hosts
    • Mechanical damage (chewing)
    • Posioning with toxins
    • Robbing nutrients
  59. Bacteria
    • Single celled prokaryotic organisms, no nuclei or mitocondria, have a cell wall.
    • Good/bad: make vitamins, keep soil fertile, cause diseases, secrete toxins, feast on nutrients, form colonies
    •  Treat with antibiotics
  60. DNA Structure
    Double helix or a twistsed ladder
  61. Process of protein synthesis
    Transcription copies DNA onto RNA as a messenger to the ribosomes. The mRNA is translated into protein.
  62. Relationship of DNA, genes and protein
    Genes are strands of DNA which are processed through transciption then translation into protein.
  63. How does the a mutation in the DNA change the protein produced from translation
    It can either make the protein entirely ineffective or it can make it have a different possibly toxic reaction/function
  64. How is the structure of a protein related to its function?
    The structure/chain of amino acids decides what the function of the protein is going to be
  65. H2O
    Water used to transport nutrients
  66. CO2
    Carbon dixoide
  67. Glucose
    Simple sugars
  68. Starch
    100+ sugars
  69. Leaf
    Used to capture sunlight and photosynthesis
  70. O2
  71. Stomata
    Holes in the leaf allowing gas exchange
  72. Xylem
    Brings water/dissolved nutrients to plant
  73. Phloem
    Transports sugars/other nutrients through the plant
  74. Chlorophyll
    Pigment absorbing sun energy from cholorplast
  75. Stem
    Moves water/food
  76. Solar energy
    Energy from the sun
  77. Chemical energy
  78. Simple sugar
  79. 8 characteristics of life
    • Must heal
    • Must grow
    • Must require nutrients
    • Must reproduce
    • Must respond to stimuli
    • Must be made of cells
    • Must be made of organic material
    • Must die
  80. Animals adapt to stimuli by
     climate change and hibernation
  81. Fructose
    Monosaccharide found in plants
  82. Atom
    Smallest unit of an element which can be alone or in combination
  83. Proton
    Positive particle in the nucleus
  84. Neutron
    Neutral particle in the nucleus
  85. Electron
    Negative particle outside of the nucleus
  86. Nucleus
    Center of the atom where protons/neutrons are found
  87. Molecule
    Result of 2+ atoms joining
  88. Ion
    Charged atom
  89. Ionic bonding
    Bond occuring with metals/non-metals of - and +
  90. Covalent bond
    Bond between non-metals where electrons are shared
  91. Element
    Base of everything that isn't combined
  92. Protein biogenetics
    • Made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen sulfur, nitrogen and phosphorus
    • Makes up structural components of organisms
    • transports things
    • Made for 2 amino acids by peptide bonds
    • ex. Keratin
  93. Anorexia
    Purposefully depreiving your body of necessary nutrients
  94. Oxidized
    WHen electrons are lost
  95. Respiration
    Process of creating energy
  96. Cytoplasm
    Fluid insde of the membrane
  97. Mitochondria
  98. Organelles
    Specialized compartments that carry out important functions for the cells
  99. Endoplasmic reticulum Rough
    Highway for proteins
  100. Endoplasmic reticulum Smooth
    Makes/transports lipids
  101. Golgi complex
    Packages proteins
  102. Lysosomes
    Breaks down unwanted molecules
  103. Cell membranes
    Protects cell, shapes cell and decides what goes in/out
  104. Cell wall
    Protects plant cells
  105. Plastids/chloroplast
    Organelle that captures sunlight/energy
  106. Vacuole
    Organelle that stores material
  107. Ribosomes
    Where proteins are made
  108. Microtubules/microfilaments
    Tough flexible framework that helps the cell in movement, part of the cytoskeleton
  109. Diffusion
    (Gases only) movement of molecules from high to low density
  110. Osmosis
    Diffusion of water in and out of cells
  111. Passive transport
    Substances pass through transport proteins but from low to high density, requiring ATP
  112. Carrier/transport protein
    • A. Forms channels that ions diffuse through
    • B. Binds to molecules being transported/moves it across cell
  113. Endocytosis
    A wasy to bring big molecules into the cell
  114. Exocytosis
    A way for molecules to exit the cell
  115. Interphase
    90% of cells' time spent growing/metabolizing , DNA replicates at the end
  116. Prophase
    DNA condensed/duplicated copies are attached by protein acentromere
  117. Metaphase
    Where the nuclear membrane dissolves, chromosomes line up in the center of the cell and proteins attach
  118. Anaphase
    Energy requiered to pull apart chromosomes to other sides of the cell
  119. Telophase
    Nuclear membrane reforms around DNA and organelles are distributed
  120. Cytokinesis
    Chromosomes disappear and 2 new cells are formed
  121. Mitosis
    Process of the cell making copies
  122. Order of mitosis
    • Interphase
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
    • Cytokinesis
  123. Four bases (2 base pairs)
    • Adenine and Thymine/urasell
    • Guanine and Cytosine
  124. Purines
    Adenine and Guanine
  125. Pyrimidines
    Thymine and Cytosine
  126. Nitrogen bases are held together by
    Nitrogen bonds
  127. Steps of replication
    • 1. DNA helicase unzips double helicase
    • 2. Nucleotides fill in complimentary bases on exposed DNA
    • 3. DNA polymerase fuses nucleotides/glues DNA back
  128. Nucleotides
    Nitrogen base, sugar and phosphate floating in the nucleus
  129. DNA contains
    Genetic code
  130. Proteins are the
    Key molecules to all the functions in all living organisms
  131. Messanger RNA (mRNA)
    Because the DNA can't leave the nucleus it needs an intermediate molecule to take the code from the DNA to the ribosomes
  132. Info on DNA
    • ATGC
    • Double stranded
    • Deoxyribose sugar
    • Very stable
  133. Info RNA
    • AUGC
    • Single stranded
    • Ribose sugars
    • Unstable
  134. Transcription
    Process of copying DNA into mRNA
  135. Transcription Process
    1. Cells get signal to make protein2. DNA where gene is located is unwound/split by DNA helicase3. One side of the DNA will be transcribed into mRNA4. Polymerase builds mRNA onto sense strand with complemenatry nucleotides5. mRNA is complete and mRNA breaks away from the DNA/leaves nucleus, DNA goes back together
  136. Sense Strand
    Side of DNA transcriped into mRNA
  137. Anti-sense strand
    Side not use to make mRNA
  138. Translation
    • mRNA attachs to ribosome at start codon (AUG)
    • 1st codon exposed
    • tRNA brings correct AA to the ribsome
    • Complimentary tRNA (with anti-codon for mRNA) brings correct amino acid
    • 2nd tRNA brings next amino acid
    • 1st tRNA leaves
    • RIbosomes move over to expose the next codon
    • Repeats until reaches stop codon
    • Protein sent through ER to golgi for packaging
  139. tRNA
    Transfer RNA
  140. Amino acids
    20 represented by 3 letter abbreviations
  141. Koch's Postulates
    • Microrangisms present with disease, absent when healthy
    • Be able to isolate microrganisms
    • Cause disease again when placed in different organisms
    • Reisolate from 2nd organism
  142. What is Koch's postulates
    Criteria by which an organism could be determined to be an infectious agent
  143. 3 types of pathogens
    Bacteria, virus, parasites
  144. Bacterial shapes
    • Spherical
    • Rod shaped
    • Helical or spiral
  145. Codon
    Unit in mRNA: set of 3 nucleotides
  146. Peptide bond
    Chemical bond between carbon and nitrogen in a peptide linkage
  147. Epidemic
    Fast-spreading disease
  148. Pandemic
    Having widespread effect
  149. Epidemiology
    Studt of epidemics
  150. Vector
    A DNA molecule used as to carry foreign genes into another cell
  151. Modes of transmission (infectious diseases)
    • Direct transmission (person-person)
    • Indirect transmission (Person-object-person)
    • Airborne transmission
    • Perenteral transmission
    • Blood-borne tansmission
    • Food/water transmission
    • Oral-fecal transmission
  152. Virulent
    Extremely toxi, marked as pathogenic microorganism
  153. Ebola
    Hemorrhagic fever, severe/fatal contagious illness caused by infection by virus
  154. Griffth's experiment
    First experiment suggesting bacteria are capable of transferring genetic info
  155. Sudan III
    Detects lipids
  156. Iodine
    Detects starch
  157. Biurets
    Dectects protein
  158. Benedicts
    Detects sugar
  159. pH paper
    Used to detect acid levels in liquids
  160. Limewater
    Indicates carbonic acid with cloudiness
  161. Phenol red
    Turns yellow to indicate acid
  162. Phenolphtalein
    Detects sodium hydroixe
  163. Bromothymol blue
    An acid-base indicator that is yellow in acid solutions and blue in alkaline solutions
  164. Negative control
    Experiment expecting no reaction
  165. Positive reaction
    Experiment expecting the usual reaction
  166. Euglena's reaction to the environment
    Go straight towards the light
  167. Variable
    Something that can be changed or varied in an experiment
  168. Prelab format
    • 1. Title/date
    • 2. Question
    • 3. Research/background
    • 4. Flowchart
    • 5. Hypothesis
    • 6. Data adn recoring
  169. Lab format (after prelab, before conclusion)
    • 7. Data recording continued
    • 8. Calculations
    • 9. Conclusions
  170. Conclusions
    • a. Summarize
    • b. analyze data
    • c. Compare/contrasts controls
    • d. Support/contradicts hypothesis
    • e. Explain possible inaccuarcies
    • f. Suggest everyday application
    • g. Reflection
  171. virulent
    easy to catch
  172. Passive transporters
    • Diffusion
    • osmosis
    • Carrier proteins
  173. Passive transport
    Moving from high to low concentration
  174. Active transporters
    • Endo/exocytosis
    • Carrier proteins
  175. Active transport
    Moving from low to high
  176. Photosynthesis chemcical equation
  177. SPONCH-biomolecules
    • Sulfur
    • Phosphorous
    • Oxygen
    • Nitrogen
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
  178. Carrier proteins
    In the nucleus allowing proteins/things through.
Card Set:
2013-01-19 16:15:40
Final Bio FlashCards

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