Judaism Terms

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Judaism Terms
2013-01-12 22:48:35

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  1. Pentateuch
    • "Five Books"
    • The first five Books of the Bible, the Jews refer to these five books as Torah 
  2. Torah 
    • "Teaching" "Instruction"
    • Composed between 600bce-70ce
    • Consists of the foundational narrative of the Jewish people: their call into being by their God, their trials and tribulations, and their covenant with their God 
    • First five books of the Tanakh written in Biblical Hebrew
    • All the teachings found in the Torah, both written and oral, were given by God to Moses
  3. The Dual Torah
    • Composed after the second destruction of the temple in 70 ce
    • Includes: Tanakh and Mishnah
  4. Tanakh 
    the written Torah 
  5. Mishnah
    • "repetition"
    • the first major written redaction of the Jewish oral traditions
    • philosophical law coed 200 ce
  6. Mitzvah 
    • Can refer to precepts and commandments as commanded by God
    • Also can refer to a moral deed performed as a religious duty.
  7. Talmud
    • "instruction, learning" 
    • Two components: The Mishnah and the Gemara
  8. Midrash 
    • "Interpretation" 
    • A way of interpreting biblical stories that goes beyond simple distillation of religious, legal, or moral teachings. It fills in many gaps left in the biblical narrative regarding events and personalities that are only hinted at
  9. Prophets 
    An individual who is claimed to have been contacted by the supernatural or the divine, and to speak for them, serving as an intermediary with humanity, delivering this newfound knowledge from the supernatural entity to other people
  10. Elohim
  11. Yahweh 
    The national god of Israel in the Hebrew Bible
  12. Covenant
    between the Jews and God 
  13. Usury 
    • The practice of making unethical or immoral monetary loans. 
    • Condemned in Judaism 
  14. Abraham
    • His story is told in chapters 11-25 of the Book of Genesis
    • According to the account in Genesis, at the age of 75, Abram, obeying God's command, took his wife Sarai, and his household and traveled from Haran to Shechem in Canaan. Abram enters into a covenant with God, signified by the rite of circumcision. Abram is now known as Abraham (“father of many nations”)
    • Abraham is the father of the Israelites through his son Isaac.
  15. Isaac
    • The only son Abraham had with his wife Sarah
    • Isaac was one of the three patriarchs of the Israelites and did not leave Canaan
  16. Patriarchs
    Abraham, his son Isaac, and Isaac's son Jacob,
  17. Sarah
    Wife of Abraham, and mother of Isaac
  18. Rebecca 
    • Wife of Isaac
    • One of the Matriarchs (a woman who rules a family) of Judaism
  19. Moses
    • 1391–1271 BCE
    • a religious leader, lawgiver and prophet, to whom the authorship of the Torah is traditionally attributed. 
    • he is the most important prophet in Judaism
  20. My Sinai
    the mountain at which the Ten Commandments were given to Moses by God according to the Book of Exodus
  21. Polytheism