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2013-01-22 08:26:17
Biological Psychology Synapses Neurons Amino Acids

Chapter 3
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    Acetylcholinesterase does what?
    enzyme that breaks acetylcholine into acetate and choline
    2-AG (sn-2 arachidonylglycerol) is produced by the brain in large quantities, and attaches to mainly what receptor?
    A) ACh receptor
    B) Dopamine receptor
    C) Serotonin receptor
    D) Endorphine receptor
    E) Cannabinoid receptor
    E) Cannabinoid receptor
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. A drug that mimics the effect of a similar neurotransmitter is also called
  4. Amino Acids are named specifically Amiono acids due to which chemical group
    NH// Amine group
  5. This drug is commonly used to treat ADD/ADHD and is commonly abused by school pupils as well as on raves
    a) Which drug
    b) What neurotransmitter does it mainly release
    • a) Amphetamine
    • b) Dopamine
  6. Precursor to Dopamine
  7. portion of the pituitary gland, composed of glandular tissue
    ANTERIOR pituitary
  8. Presynaptic receptor that is stimulated by the neurotransmitter released by the presynaptic cell itself, feeding back to decrease further release of the transmitter
  9. Compounds that contain both a Catechol and Amine group is
    a) Called what
    b) Which 3 main neurotransmitters are assosicated with these?
    • a) Catecholamines duh
    • b) Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine (noradrenaline, adrenaline)
    stimulant drug that increases the stimulation of dopamine synapses by blocking the reuptake of dopamine by the presynaptic neuron
  11. COMT (catechol-o-methyltransferase) -
    What is it, and what is main function?
    • an enzyme - that converts catecholamines into synaptically inactive forms
  12. membrane protein that enables the presynaptic neuron to reabsorb dopamine after releasing it is called
    A) membrane transporter
    B) dopaneric receptor
    C) membrane reuptaker
    D) agonist
    A) membrane transporter
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. A graded depolarization of a neuron, is also called?
    • ESPS
    • Excitatory postsynaptic potential
  14. An endocrine gland releases what into the blood?
  15. Endocrine system concerns mainly what type of compounds?
  16. One of the most common Neurotransmitters is a gas, which one?
    • NO,  Nitric Oxide
    • It was found that NO acts through the stimulation of certain chemicals, which causes reuptake of Ca2+ and the opening of calcium-activated potassium channels,
    •  smooth muscle cell. The fall in concentration of Ca2 ultimately leads to relaxation of the smooth muscle cells.
  17. NO Nitric Oxide is poisonous, true or false?
    • True
    • It is a so-called Free Radical, and despite being a Neurotransmitter, is NOT stored in the cell, but synthezised only when needed.
  18. MAO works a lot like COMT, except that it also inactives another neurotransmitter. Name all 4 N.T. inactivated?
    The catecholamines: Dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline and (unlike COMT) Serotonin
  19. nonacidic neurotransmitter containing an amine group (NH2), formed by a metabolic change of certain amino acids
    A) MAO
    B) MAO
    C) Monoamine
    D) Nitric-di-hydroxide
    E) COMT
    C) Monoamine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. (5-HT) is another name for shortening for which very significant neurotransmitter?
  21. Tryptamines includes
    A) Serotonin and Melatonin
    B) Serotonin and Dopamine
    C) Catecholamines and Melatonin
    A) Serotonin and Melatonin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Dopamine is the first catecholamine synthesized from DOPA. Which further 2 important neurotransmitters are derived from Dopamine?
    A) --> Norepinephrine --> Epinephrine
    B) --> ACh --> Adrenaline
    C) --> Norepinephrine --> Serotonin
    A) --> Norepinephrine --> Epinephrine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. norepinephrine and dopamine, act as neuromodulators in the central nervous system and as hormones in the blood circulation, True or false
  24. What does MAOI do to MAO, and what is MAOI used as commonly?
    • Inhibits MAO, hence the name MAOI - Monoamine oxidase inhibitor
    • It is used to treat depression by inhibiting breaking down catecholamines in the synapse
  25. serotonergic neurons tells us what about this Neuron?
    A) It has a receptor on its membrane for Serotonin
    B) It only synthesises Serotonin
    C) It synthesises Serotonin as a Neurotransmitter
    C) It synthesises Serotonin as a Neurotransmitter
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. SSRI has the same effect on Serotonin as MAOI, true or false?
    • True
    • Both inhibits the reuptake by the presynaptic neuron, thus prolonging the exposure of the chemicals.
  27. Where is Oxytocin
    a) Synthesised from
    b) Released from in the body?
    • a) Synthesised from Hypothalamus
    • b) By the pituitary stalk carried down to Posterior pituitary gland in the brain, where it is carried through the blood
  28. Generalized, Drug X has an inhibitory effect in the central nervous system (CNS). Caffeine's stimulatory effects, on the other hand, are primarily (although not entirely) credited to its inhibition of Drug X by binding to the same receptors, and therefore effectively blocking Drug X receptors in the CNS. This reduction in Drug X activity leads to increased activity of the neurotransmitters dopamine and glutamate. Name Drug X?

    a) Adenosine
    b) Norepinephrine
    c) DOPA
    e) ACh
    • a) Adenosine
    • Adenosine plays an important role in biochemical processes, such as energy transfer—as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). It is also an inhibitory neurotransmitter, believed to play a role in promoting sleep and suppressing arousal, with levels increasing in the brain with each hour an organism is awake.
  29. Transporter is a membrane protein responsible for the reuptake of a neurotransmitter after its release, True or False?
  30. Tendency ofa drug to activate a particular kind of receptor
    a) Efficacy
    b) Activation potential
    c) Action Potential
    d) Effectiveness
  31. What is one of the keys that determines if a medicine/drug is ready for the market?
    a) Drug has high Efficacy despite quite low Affinity
    b) Drug has Affinity despite quite low Efficacy
    c) Drug has no side-effects
    d) Drug has no cross-interactions
    • a) Drug has high Efficacy despite quite low Affinity
    • This means that the drug is not just binding but also affecting the postsynaptic neuron
  32. Tendency ofa drug to bind to a particular type of receptor
  33. Tiny, nearly spherical packets near the axon terminals filled with the neurotransmitter
  34. Section of cerebral cortex extending from the central sulcus to the anterior limit of the brain, containing the primary motor cortex and the prefrontal cortex
    Frontal lobe
  35. Ion channel that opens temporarily when a neurotransmitter binds to it
    Transmitter-gated channel