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what are risk factors for CAD? (5)
total cholesterol >200
what are compensatory mechanisms that are started as a result of heart failure? (3)
what does left sided heart failure cause? (2 parts)
(aka left vent failure)
inadequate left ventricular (cardiac) output
results in inadequate tissue perfusion
what does systolic heart failure mean?
ejection fraction below 40%
what does diastolic heart failure mean?
inadequate relaxation or "stiffening" prevents ventricular filling
what does right sided heart failure cause? (2 parts)
inadequate right ventricle output
results in systemic venous congestion and peripheral edema
s/s of left sided heart failure (4)
dyspnea, orthopnea (SOB while lying down)
displaced apical pulse (hypertrophy)
s/s of right sided heart faliure (5)
liver enlargement and tenderness
effect of statin meds (5)
- --other non lipid effects--
decrease plaque site inflammation
dec. risk of thromboembolism
what is the ending of the name of beta blockers?
effects of beta blockers (3)
decrease myocardial contractility
dec. rate of conduction thry AV node
adverse side effects of beta blockers (4)
bronchoconstriction (NO ASTHMA PT's)
contraindications for beta blockers (4)
heart failure (use cautiously, will be titrated)
diabetes (may mask s/s of hyper/hypoglycemia)
what is the ending part of the name of ACE inhibitors
effects of ACE inhibitors (4)
blocks production of angiotensin II
excretion of Na and water
retention of potassium
therapeutic uses for ACE inhibitors (3)
MI (decreases mortality, risk of HF and left vent dysfynction)
adverse SE of ACE inhibitors (2)
what is the therapeutic dose range for dig?
s/s of dig toxicity (7)
bradycardia and dysrhythmias
what is a common cause of dig toxicity?
Examples of NSAIDs (4)
Is tylenol/acetaminophen an NSAID?
No -- it is its own class of medication (acetaminophen)
MOA of Loop diuretics (2)
block reabsorption of Na and water to prevent water reabsoprtion
causes extensive diuresis
SE of loop diuretics (3)
dehydration and hypotension
MOA of thiazide diuretics (2)
block reabsorbtion of Na and chloride -- prevents reabsorption of water
SE of thiazide diuretics (2)
MOA of potassium sparing diuretics
blocks action of aldosterone (na and water rentention)
results in K retention + Na and water secretion
SE of K sparing diuretics
s/s of cardiogenic shock (6)
cool clammy skin
dec. peripheral pulses
nursing care for cardiogenic shock (6)
monitor breath sounds --assess crackles or wheezes
monitor heart sounds
admin morphine diuretics, and/or nitro -- dec. preload
admin IV vasopressors and inotropes -- inc. CO and maintain organ perfusion
no beta blockers or meds that cause bradycardia!
when do PVC's become dangerous?
when there are 6 or more per minute
patient teaching with Nitro (2)
call 911 if pain not relieved within 5 minutes of taking
can take one tab every 5 min up to three tabs while waiting for help
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