Cardiac

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Author:
rodghawk
ID:
192549
Filename:
Cardiac
Updated:
2013-01-21 12:55:34
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NCLEX
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Description:
NCLEX
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  1. what are risk factors for CAD? (5)
    total cholesterol >200

    LDL >100

    HDL <40

    smoking

    obesity
  2. what are compensatory mechanisms that are started as a result of heart failure? (3)
    ventricular hypertrophy

    RAAS system

    sympathetic NS
  3. what does left sided heart failure cause? (2 parts)
    (aka left vent failure)

    inadequate left ventricular (cardiac) output

    results in inadequate tissue perfusion
  4. what does systolic heart failure mean?
    ejection fraction below 40%
  5. what does diastolic heart failure mean?
    inadequate relaxation or "stiffening" prevents ventricular filling
  6. what does right sided heart failure cause? (2 parts)
    inadequate right ventricle output

    results in systemic venous congestion and peripheral edema
  7. s/s of left sided heart failure (4)
    dyspnea, orthopnea (SOB while lying down)

    pulmonary congestion

    frothy sputum

    displaced apical pulse (hypertrophy)
  8. s/s of right sided heart faliure (5)
    JVD

    ascending edema

    ascites

    weight gain

    liver enlargement and tenderness
  9. effect of statin meds (5)
    decrease LDL

    increase HDL

    • --other non lipid effects--
    • vasodilation

    decrease plaque site inflammation

    dec. risk of thromboembolism
  10. what is the ending of the name of beta blockers?
    "lol"
  11.  effects of beta blockers (3)
    decrease HR

    decrease myocardial contractility

    dec. rate of conduction thry AV node
  12. adverse side effects of beta blockers (4)
    bradycardia

    dec. CO

    orthostatic hypotension

    bronchoconstriction (NO ASTHMA PT's)
  13. contraindications for beta blockers (4)
    asthma

    heart failure (use cautiously, will be titrated)

    bronchospasm

    diabetes (may mask s/s of hyper/hypoglycemia)
  14. what is the ending part of the name of ACE inhibitors
    "pril"
  15. effects of ACE inhibitors (4)
    blocks production of angiotensin II

    vasodilation

    excretion of Na and water

    retention of potassium
  16. therapeutic uses for ACE inhibitors (3)
    HTN

    HF

    MI (decreases mortality, risk of HF and left vent dysfynction)
  17. adverse SE of ACE inhibitors (2)
    dry cough

    hyperkalemia
  18. what is the therapeutic dose range for dig?
    0.5-2.0
  19. s/s of dig toxicity (7)
    fatigue

    blurred vision

    anorexia

    NV

    HA

    bradycardia and dysrhythmias

    confusion
  20. what is a common cause of dig toxicity?
    hypokalemia
  21. Examples of NSAIDs (4)
    Aspirin

    Ibuprofen

    Naproxen

    Toradol
  22. Is tylenol/acetaminophen an NSAID?
    No -- it is its own class of medication (acetaminophen)
  23. MOA of Loop diuretics (2)
    block reabsorption of Na and water to prevent water reabsoprtion

    causes extensive diuresis
  24. SE of loop diuretics (3)
    dehydration and hypotension

    hyponatremia

    hypokalemia
  25. MOA of thiazide diuretics (2)
    block reabsorbtion of Na and chloride -- prevents reabsorption of water

    promotres diuresis
  26. SE of thiazide diuretics (2)
    dehydration

    hypokalemia
  27. MOA of potassium sparing diuretics
    blocks action of aldosterone (na and water rentention)

    results in K retention + Na and water secretion
  28. SE of K sparing diuretics
    HYPERKALEMIA
  29. s/s of cardiogenic shock (6)
    tachy/hypotension

    inadequate UO

    altered LOC

    resp. distresss

    cool clammy skin

    dec. peripheral pulses
  30. nursing care for cardiogenic shock (6)
    monitor breath sounds --assess crackles or wheezes

    monitor heart sounds

    admin oxygen

    admin morphine diuretics, and/or nitro -- dec. preload

    admin IV vasopressors and inotropes -- inc. CO and maintain organ perfusion

    no beta blockers or meds that cause bradycardia!
  31. when do PVC's become dangerous?
    when there are 6 or more per minute
  32. patient teaching with Nitro (2)
    call 911 if pain not relieved within 5 minutes of taking

    can take one tab every 5 min up to three tabs while waiting for help

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