Neuro - Meseke

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Neuro - Meseke
2013-01-13 14:57:39
Neuroanatomy Brain formation

brainstem development
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  1. At weeks 3-4 what are the parts of the neural tube?
    • Procencephalon
    • Mesencephalon
    • Rhombencephalon
  2. What is the most anterior/rostral vesicle?
    Prosencephalon or forebrain
  3. What is the central vesicle?
    Mesencephalon - midbrain
  4. What is the most posterior vesicle?
    Rhombenecephalon - hindbrain
  5. What are the 5 dilations at the cephalic end of of neural tube at week 5?
    • Telencephalon
    • Diencephalon
    • Mesencephalon
    • Metencephalon
    • Myelencephalon
  6. What will the Telencephalon develop into?
    Cerebral Hemispheres
  7. What will the Diencephalon develop into?
    • -Thalamus, Hypothalamus, epithalamus
    • -The more dorsal portion will be the pineal gland and the more ventral will be the pituitary gland, third ventricle. 
  8. What feature does the Mesencephalon have running through it?
    The midbrain as well as the Cerebral Aquaduct
  9. The Rhombencephalon develops into what 2 structures?
    • Metencephalon
    • Myelcenphalon
  10. The more anterior of the Rhombencephalon is?
    Metencephalon which will become the pons and the cerebellum
  11. The more posterior portion of the Rhombencephalon is?
    Myelencephalon which will become the medulla
  12. The lumen of the spinal cord is continuous with the lumen of the brain allowing what to flow freely between the brain and the cord?
  13. The 4th ventricle opens into the ____ via the foramina of ______ and ____
    • subarachnoid space
    • Luscka and Magendie
  14. After the neural tube is closed what type of cell resides in it?
    neuroepithelium (derived from neuroectoderm)
  15. What is the zone that surrounds the neuroepithelium?
    Mantle which will become grey matter (cell bodies)
  16. What is the outer most layer of the cord which contains nerve fibers emerging from the mantle?
    Marginal zone which will be white matter
  17. The basal motor plate of the Myelencephalon contains motor nuclei divided into what 3 groups?
    • 1) General Somatic Efferent - medial
    • 2) Special Visceral Efferent - intermediate
    • 3) General Visceral Efferent - lateral
  18. General Somatic Efferent (motor) - myelencephalon
    Innervates all skeletal muscle except the Trapz and SCM. Tongue, eye muscles, abs, etc...
  19. Special Visceral Efferent - myelcephalon
    • -Derived from Pharyngeal arches and innervated by CN ix, x, xi
    • - innervated trapz and SCM
  20. General Visceral Efferent - myelencephalon
    • -involved in gut movement and parasympathetic, rest and digest.
    • -CN x
  21. The Alar plate of the Myelencephalon contains sensory relay nuclei and divides into what 3 groups?
    • 1) General Visceral Afferent -medial
    • 2) Special Visceral Afferent - intermediate
    • 3) General Somatic Afferent - lateral
  22. General Visceral Afferent - myelencephalon
    receives info from heart and GI tract. pain and fullness. CN x
  23. Special Visceral Afferent - myelencephalon
    • Chemoreception - taste buds of tongue, palate, oropharynx and epiglottis.
    • CN vii, ix, x
  24. General Somatic Afferent - myelencephalon
    • Both general and specific. Touch, pain, temperature, itch, conscious kinesthesia and proprioception 
    • CN vii, v , ix, x
  25. The Metencephalon forms what 2 special components?
    • Cerebellum ( movement and equilibrium)
    • Pons ( pathway between the cord, cerebellum and cerebrum)
  26. General Somatic Efferent - metencephalon
    goes to abducens - lateral rectus muscle of eye
  27. Special Visceral Efferent - metencephalon
    • pharyngeal arches
    • CN v - muscles of mastication
    • CN vii - facial expression
  28. General Visceral Efferent - Metencephalon
    parasympathetic - CN vii - secretomotor, lacramation, nasal glands, salvation
  29. General Visceral Afferent - metencephalon
    gut movement, pain, temperature CNx
  30. Special Visceral Afferent - metencephalon
    CN vii - taste
  31. General Somatic Afferent - metencephalon
  32. The dorsolateral parts of the Alar plates bend medially to create what structure in the metencephalon?
    Rhombic Lip
  33. What structure and where is formed by the fusion of the Rhombic Lips?
    Cerebellum and in the metencephalon
  34. The most prominent fissures divide the cerebellum into 3 lobes.
    • 1) Anterior
    • 2) Posterior
    • 3) Flocculonodular
  35. What is the Anterior lobe of the cb responsible for?
  36. What is the posterior lobe of the cb responsible for?
    • -motor and ballistic learning
    • -learned motor function
    • -crawl, walk, run, speech
    • -thinking in language is a motor function
    • -cognition
  37. What is the Flocculonodular lobe of the cb responsible for?
    • -balance
    • -proprioception
    • -kinesthesia 
  38. Both the basal and alar plates of the mesencephalon are easily seen and separated by...
    Sulcus Limitans
  39. In the Mesencephalon the basal plate gives rise to neurons of the tegmentum and crus cerebri, may be divided into 2 groups of motor nuclei.