Chapter 21 vocab

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Chapter 21 vocab
2013-01-13 15:25:50
vocab ap gov unit quarter

chapter 21 state government vocab
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  1. subnational governments
    another way of referring to state and local governments, through a process or reform, modernization, and changing intergovernmental relations since the 1960s, subnational governments have assumed new responsibilities and importance
  2. line-item veto
    the power possessed by 42 state governors to veto only certain parts of a bill while allowing the rest of it to pass into law
  3. lieutenant governor
    often the second-highest executive official in state government who is elected with the governor as a ticket in some states and is elected separately in other, she or he may have legislative and executive branch responsibilities
  4. merit plan
    method for selecting state judges in which governors appoint persons based on the recommendations of a committee. after serving a short term, the judge then often faces a retention election
  5. direct democracy
    government cotrolled directly by citizens. in some US states, procedures such as the initiative, the referendum, and the recall give voters a direct impact on policymaking and the political process by means of the voting booth and can therefore be considered form of direct democracy
  6. initiative
    a process permitted in some states whereby voters may place proposed changes to state law on the ballot if sufficient signatures are obtained on petitions calling for such a vote
  7. referendum
    a state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove legislation or a constitutional amendment proposed by the state legislature
  8. recall
    a procedure that allows voters to call a special election for a specific official in an attempt to throw him to her out of office before the end of term. recalls are permitted in only 17 states, seldom used because of their cost and disruptiveness, and rarely successful
  9. Dillon's rule
    the idea that local governments have only those powers that are explicitly given them by the states. this means that local governments have very little discretion over what policies they pursue or how they pursue them. it was named for Iowa Judge John Dillon, who expressed this idea in an 1868 court decision
  10. local charter
    an organizational statement and grant of authority from the state to a local government, much like a state or national constitution. states sometimes allow municipalities to write their own charters and to change them without permission of the state legislature, within limits. See also home rule
  11. home rule
    the practice by which municipalities are permitted by the states to write their own charters and change them without permission of the state legislature, within limits. today this practice is widely used to organize and modernize municipal government. see also local charter
  12. town meeting
    a special form of direct democracy under which all voting-age adults in a community gather once a year to make public policy. now used only in a few villages in upper New England
  13. city manager
    an official appointed by the city council who is responsible for implementing and administering the council's actions. more than one-third of US cities use the council-manager form of government
  14. council of governments
    councils in many areas of the country where officials from various localities meet to discuss mutual problems and plan joint, cooperative action