MCAT Bio

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Author:
nextMD
ID:
192575
Filename:
MCAT Bio
Updated:
2013-01-13 16:46:29
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MCAT Bio Princeton Chapter
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Description:
MCAT Bio Princeton Chapter 2
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  1. Competitive Inhibitor
    • Can be overcome by increase [S]
    • Reduces V
    • Does not alter Vmax
    • Binds at active site
  2. Non-Competitive Inhibitor
    • Can not be overcome by increase [S]
    • Reduces Vmax
    • Does not alter Km
  3. Protein phosphatase
    Removes a phosphate from a protein; this is covalent modification
  4. Proteolytic Cleavage
    • Breaks peptide bonds between amino acids
    • Ex: Activation of Digestive Enzymes
  5. Allosteric regulation
    Occurs viad the binding of a regulator molecule to an allosteric site of an enzyme and does not involve dephosphorylation
  6. Consitutive activity
    Occurs when the activity of an enzyme is continuously on; this can occur in response to an association with an activating subunit or dissociation from an inhibitory subunit
  7. Standard Free Energy - Go'
    • = -RTlnK'eq
    • K'eq = [C]eq[D]eq/[A]eq[B]eq
  8. Free energy = G
    Go' + RTlnK, where K = [C][D]/[A][B]
  9. G for the hydrolysis of one phosphate group from ATP in the body
    -12kcal/mol
  10. Proteases
    Protein-cleaving enzymes.  Many have an active site with a serine residue whose OH group can act as a nucleophile, attacking the carbonyl carbon of an amino acid residue in a polypeptide chain
  11. Kinase
    The addition of a phosphoryl group from an ATP to the hydroxyl of serene, threonine, or tyrosine residues.  Phosphorylation on an enzyme can either activate or inactivate the enzyme.
  12. Phosphorylases
    phosphorylate proteins using free-floating inorganic phosphate (Pi) in the cell instead of ATP
  13. Three meanings of oxidize
    • attach oxygen (or increase number of bonds to oxygen)
    • remove hydrogen
    • remove electrons
  14. Three meanings of reduce
    • remove oxygen (or decrease number of bonds to oxygen)
    • add hydrogen
    • add electrons
  15. Theoretical ATP yield from cellular respiration in Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
    30 and 32
  16. Where does Fatty acid oxidation take place?
    mitochondrial matrix
  17. Where does electron transport take place?
    inner mitochondrial membrane
  18. Where does fatty acid synthesis take place?
    Cytoplasm of hepatocytes (liver cells)

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