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- Can be overcome by increase [S]
- Reduces V
- Does not alter VmaxBinds at active site
- Can not be overcome by increase [S]
- Reduces Vmax
- Does not alter Km
Removes a phosphate from a protein; this is covalent modification
- Breaks peptide bonds between amino acids
- Ex: Activation of Digestive Enzymes
Occurs viad the binding of a regulator molecule to an allosteric site of an enzyme and does not involve dephosphorylation
Occurs when the activity of an enzyme is continuously on; this can occur in response to an association with an activating subunit or dissociation from an inhibitory subunit
Standard Free Energy -
- = -RTlnK'eq
- K'eq = [C]eq[D]eq/[A]eq[B]eq
Free energy =
' + RTlnK, where K = [C][D]/[A][B]
G for the hydrolysis of one phosphate group from ATP in the body
Protein-cleaving enzymes. Many have an active site with a serine residue whose OH group can act as a nucleophile, attacking the carbonyl carbon of an amino acid residue in a polypeptide chain
The addition of a phosphoryl group from an ATP to the hydroxyl of serene, threonine, or tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation on an enzyme can either activate or inactivate the enzyme.
phosphorylate proteins using free-floating inorganic phosphate (Pi) in the cell instead of ATP
Three meanings of oxidize
- attach oxygen (or increase number of bonds to oxygen)
- remove hydrogen
- remove electrons
Three meanings of reduce
- remove oxygen (or decrease number of bonds to oxygen)
- add hydrogen
- add electrons
Theoretical ATP yield from cellular respiration in Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
30 and 32
Where does Fatty acid oxidation take place?
Where does electron transport take place?
inner mitochondrial membrane
Where does fatty acid synthesis take place?
Cytoplasm of hepatocytes (liver cells)