PSY215 Chapter 2

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lunarii27
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192603
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PSY215 Chapter 2
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2013-01-13 17:40:52
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Developmental Psychology vocabulary
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Experiencing the Lifespan Belsky Chapter 2 vocabulary
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  1. Pear-shaped muscular organ in a woman's abdomen that houses the developing baby.
    Uterus
  2. The neck, or narrow lower portion, of the uterus.
    Cervix
  3. One of a pair of slim,pipe-like structures that connect the ovaries with the uterus.
    Fallopian tube
  4. One of a pair of almond-shaped organs that contain a woman's ova, or eggs.
    Ovary
  5. The union of sperm & egg.
    Fertilization
  6. The moment during a woman's monthly cycle when an ovum is expelled from the ovary.
    Ovulation
  7. Chemical substances released in the bloodstream that target and change organs & tissues.
    Hormones
  8. Male organs that manufacture sperm.
    Testes
  9. Threadlike strand of DNA located in the nucleus of every cell that carries the genes, which transmit hereditary information.
    Chromosome
  10. Material that makes up genes, which bear our hereditary characteristics.
    DNA
  11. A segment of DNA that contains a chemical blueprint for manufacturing a particular protein.
    Gene
  12. The first 14 days of prenatal development, from fertilization to full implantation.
    Germinal stage
  13. Fertilized ovum.
    Zygote
  14. Hollow sphere of cells formed during the germinal stage in preparation for implantation.
    Blastocyst
  15. Process in which a blastocyst becomes embedded in the uterine wall.
    Implantation
  16. Structure projecting from the wall of the uterus during pregnancy through which the developing baby absorbs nutrients.
    Placenta
  17. Second stage of prenatal development, lasting from week 3 through week 8.
    Embryonic stage
  18. Cylindrical structure that forms along the back of the embryo and develops into the brain & spinal cord.
    Neural tube
  19. Nerve cell.
    Neuron
  20. Developmental principle that growth occurs from the most interior parts of the body outward.
    Proximodistal sequence
  21. Developmental principle that growth occurs in a sequence from head to toe.
    Cephalocaudal sequence
  22. Developmental principle that large structures (and movements) precede increasingly detailed refinements.
    Mass-to-specific sequence
  23. Final period of prenatal development, lasting seven months, characterized by physical refinements, massive growth, and development of the brain.
    Fetal stage
  24. Earliest point at which a baby can survive outside the womb, 22 weeks.
    Age of viability
  25. Structure that attaches the placenta to the fetus, through which nutrients are passed and fetal wastes are removed.
    Umbilical cord
  26. Bag-shaped, fluid-filled membrane that contains and insulates the fetus.
    Amniotic sac
  27. Period of pregnancy.
    Gestation
  28. 3-month long segments into which pregnancy is divided.
    Trimester
  29. Naturally occurring loss of a pregnancy and death of the fetus.
    Miscarriage
  30. Pregnant woman's first feeling of the fetus moving inside her body, around week 18.
    Quickening
  31. Physical or neurological problem that occurs prenatally or at birth.
    Birth defect
  32. Substance that crosses the placenta and harms the fetus.
    Teratogen
  33. Time when a body structure is most vulnerable to damage by a teratogen, typically when that organ or process is rapidly developing or coming "on line".
    Sensitive period
  34. Learning impairment and behavioral problems during infancy & childhood.
    Developmental disorders
  35. Cluster of birth defects caused by the mother's alcohol consumption during pregnancy.
    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
  36. Most common chromosomal abnormality, causing mental retardation, susceptibility to heart disease, and other health problems; and distinctive physical characteristics, such as slanted eyes and stocky build.
    Down syndrome
  37. Illness cause by a single gene.
    Single-gene disorder
  38. Illness that a child gets by inheriting one copy of the abnormal gene that causes the disorder.
    Dominant disorder
  39. Illness that a child gets by inheriting two copies of the abnormal gene that causes the disorder.
    Recessive disorder
  40. Illness, carried on the mother's X chromosome, that typically leaves the female offspring unaffected but has a 50/50 chance of striking each male child.
    Sex-linked single-gene disorder
  41. Blood test to determine whether a person carries the gene for a given genetic disorder.
    Genetic testing
  42. Professional who counsels parents-to-be about their own or their children's risk of developing genetic disorders, as well as about available treatments.
    Genetic counselor
  43. In pregnancy, an image of the fetus in the womb that helps to date the pregnancy, assess the fetus's growth and identify abnormalities.
    Ultrasound
  44. Relatively risky first-trimester test for fetal genetic disorders.
    Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
  45. Second-trimester procedure that involves inserting a syringe into a woman's uterus to extract a sample of amniotic fluid, which is tested for a variety of genetic and chromosomal conditions.
    Amniocentesis
  46. Inability to conceive after a year of unprotected sex (includes the inability to carry a child to term).
    Infertility
  47. Any infertility treatment in which the egg is fertilized outside the womb.
    Assisted reproductive technology (ART)
  48. Infertility treatment in which conception occurs outside the womb; the developing cell mass is then inserted into the woman's uterus so that pregnancy can occur.
    In vitro fertilization
  49. General term for labor & birth without medical interventions.
    Natural childbirth
  50. Method of delivering a baby surgically by extracting the baby through incisions in the woman's abdominal wall and in the uterus.
    Cesarean section (C-section)
  51. Health-care professions trained to handle low-risk deliveries, with obstetrical backup should complications arise.
    Certified midwife
  52. A person who provides loving emotional and physical support during labor, offering massage and help in breathing and relaxation, but not performing actual health-care tasks, such as vaginal exams; mirrors "old style" birthing.
    Doula
  53. Popular method to prepare women for childbirth by teaching pain management through relaxation & breathing exercises developed by a French physician.
    Lamaze method
  54. Technique designed in the 1940s for women interested in having a completely natural, non-medicated birth.  Stresses good diet & exercise, partner coaching & deep relaxation.
    Bradley method
  55. Cutting of the perineum or vagina to widen that opening to allow the fetus to emerge (not recommended unless there is a problem delivery).
    Episiotomy
  56. Most popular type of anesthesia used during labor, involves injecting a painkilling medication into a small space outside the spinal cord to numb the woman's body below the waist.  Now used during active labor and C-sections.
    Epidural
  57. External or internal device used to monitor fetal heart rate & alert the doctor to distress.
    Electronic fetal monitor
  58. Quick test to assess a just-delivered baby's condition by measuring heart rate, muscle tone, respiration, reflex response & color.
    Apgar scale
  59. Body weight at birth of less than 5 1/2 pounds.
    Low birth weight (LBW)
  60. Body weight at birth of less than 3 1/4 pounds.
    Very low birth weight (VLBW)
  61. Special hospital unit that treats at-risk newborns, such as low-birth-weight and very-low-birth-weight babies.
    Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)
  62. Death during the first year of life.
    Infant mortality

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