Experiencing the Lifespan Belsky Chapter 2 vocabulary
Pear-shaped muscular organ in a woman's abdomen that houses the developing baby.
The neck, or narrow lower portion, of the uterus.
One of a pair of slim,pipe-like structures that connect the ovaries with the uterus.
One of a pair of almond-shaped organs that contain a woman's ova, or eggs.
The union of sperm & egg.
The moment during a woman's monthly cycle when an ovum is expelled from the ovary.
Chemical substances released in the bloodstream that target and change organs & tissues.
Male organs that manufacture sperm.
Threadlike strand of DNA located in the nucleus of every cell that carries the genes, which transmit hereditary information.
Material that makes up genes, which bear our hereditary characteristics.
A segment of DNA that contains a chemical blueprint for manufacturing a particular protein.
The first 14 days of prenatal development, from fertilization to full implantation.
Hollow sphere of cells formed during the germinal stage in preparation for implantation.
Process in which a blastocyst becomes embedded in the uterine wall.
Structure projecting from the wall of the uterus during pregnancy through which the developing baby absorbs nutrients.
Second stage of prenatal development, lasting from week 3 through week 8.
Cylindrical structure that forms along the back of the embryo and develops into the brain & spinal cord.
Developmental principle that growth occurs from the most interior parts of the body outward.
Developmental principle that growth occurs in a sequence from head to toe.
Developmental principle that large structures (and movements) precede increasingly detailed refinements.
Final period of prenatal development, lasting seven months, characterized by physical refinements, massive growth, and development of the brain.
Earliest point at which a baby can survive outside the womb, 22 weeks.
Age of viability
Structure that attaches the placenta to the fetus, through which nutrients are passed and fetal wastes are removed.
Bag-shaped, fluid-filled membrane that contains and insulates the fetus.
Period of pregnancy.
3-month long segments into which pregnancy is divided.
Naturally occurring loss of a pregnancy and death of the fetus.
Pregnant woman's first feeling of the fetus moving inside her body, around week 18.
Physical or neurological problem that occurs prenatally or at birth.
Substance that crosses the placenta and harms the fetus.
Time when a body structure is most vulnerable to damage by a teratogen, typically when that organ or process is rapidly developing or coming "on line".
Learning impairment and behavioral problems during infancy & childhood.
Cluster of birth defects caused by the mother's alcohol consumption during pregnancy.
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
Most common chromosomal abnormality, causing mental retardation, susceptibility to heart disease, and other health problems; and distinctive physical characteristics, such as slanted eyes and stocky build.
Illness cause by a single gene.
Illness that a child gets by inheriting one copy of the abnormal gene that causes the disorder.
Illness that a child gets by inheriting two copies of the abnormal gene that causes the disorder.
Illness, carried on the mother's X chromosome, that typically leaves the female offspring unaffected but has a 50/50 chance of striking each male child.
Sex-linked single-gene disorder
Blood test to determine whether a person carries the gene for a given genetic disorder.
Professional who counsels parents-to-be about their own or their children's risk of developing genetic disorders, as well as about available treatments.
In pregnancy, an image of the fetus in the womb that helps to date the pregnancy, assess the fetus's growth and identify abnormalities.
Relatively risky first-trimester test for fetal genetic disorders.
Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
Second-trimester procedure that involves inserting a syringe into a woman's uterus to extract a sample of amniotic fluid, which is tested for a variety of genetic and chromosomal conditions.
Inability to conceive after a year of unprotected sex (includes the inability to carry a child to term).
Any infertility treatment in which the egg is fertilized outside the womb.
Assisted reproductive technology (ART)
Infertility treatment in which conception occurs outside the womb; the developing cell mass is then inserted into the woman's uterus so that pregnancy can occur.
In vitro fertilization
General term for labor & birth without medical interventions.
Method of delivering a baby surgically by extracting the baby through incisions in the woman's abdominal wall and in the uterus.
Cesarean section (C-section)
Health-care professions trained to handle low-risk deliveries, with obstetrical backup should complications arise.
A person who provides loving emotional and physical support during labor, offering massage and help in breathing and relaxation, but not performing actual health-care tasks, such as vaginal exams; mirrors "old style" birthing.
Popular method to prepare women for childbirth by teaching pain management through relaxation & breathing exercises developed by a French physician.
Technique designed in the 1940s for women interested in having a completely natural, non-medicated birth. Stresses good diet & exercise, partner coaching & deep relaxation.
Cutting of the perineum or vagina to widen that opening to allow the fetus to emerge (not recommended unless there is a problem delivery).
Most popular type of anesthesia used during labor, involves injecting a painkilling medication into a small space outside the spinal cord to numb the woman's body below the waist. Now used during active labor and C-sections.
External or internal device used to monitor fetal heart rate & alert the doctor to distress.
Electronic fetal monitor
Quick test to assess a just-delivered baby's condition by measuring heart rate, muscle tone, respiration, reflex response & color.
Body weight at birth of less than 5 1/2 pounds.
Low birth weight (LBW)
Body weight at birth of less than 3 1/4 pounds.
Very low birth weight (VLBW)
Special hospital unit that treats at-risk newborns, such as low-birth-weight and very-low-birth-weight babies.