8th grade final exam- Chapters 19-22

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8th grade final exam- Chapters 19-22
2010-05-14 00:18:04

Chapters 19-22 vocabulary and short answer
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  1. “black codes”
    Regulated the conduct of freed blacks after the Civil War
  2. 14th Amendment
    Made black Americans citizens of the Unites States and of the states in which they lived and forbade states to deprive citizens of the rights of life, liberty, and property
  3. 15th Amendment
    Stated that the right to vote cannot be denied on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
  4. John Wilkes Booth
    Southern sympathizer who assassinated Abraham Lincoln at Ford’s Theatre
  5. Describe the three theories for Reconstruction. Be sure to include the name of each theory, who supported it, their view of the Confederate states, and how they believed the states’ re-admittance to the Union should occur.
  6. How did a) Plessy vs. Ferguson and b) the Jim Crow laws add legal justification for segregation?
  7. Graft
    Corruption or thievery in office
  8. Boss Tweed
    The multimillionaire “dictator” of New York City who worked with Tammany Hall to control the city government during the 1860’s and 1870’s
  9. “salary grab”
    Unsuccessful attempt by Congress to vote themselves a 50% pay raise
  10. Credit Mobilier
    Company created by the Union Pacific Railroad and given all the construction contracts at exaggerated costs
  11. Spoils system
    Informal practice under which a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to it supporters as a reward and incentive for working toward victory
  12. List and explain four reasons for the graft and corruption in the postwar years.
  13. Homestead Act
    Gave Americans 160 acres of free land in the west if they lived there for five years.
  14. Forty Niners
    Those who traveled to California in search of gold in 1949
  15. Fifty Niners
    Those who traveled to Colorado in search of gold in 1959
  16. Oklahoma Sooners
    Settlers who sought to take advantage of President Benjamin Harrisons offer of free homesteads at twelve o’clock noon on April 22, 1889
  17. Long drive
    The route cattle ranchers took to bring their cattle north to the railroads
  18. Describe Custer’s last stand. Be sure to include what prompted the final battle, who was involved, and the outcome.
  19. List the three main U.S. government policies regarding the American Indians and describe the purpose of each policy.
  20. Industrial Revolution
    The increase in the production and sale of goods caused by new inventions in technology, communication, and transportation
  21. Stock
    Certificates of ownership in a corporation
  22. Trust
    A combination of firms or corporations for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices throughout a business or an industry.
  23. Mass production
    The manufacture of goods in large quantities
  24. Division of labor
    The breakdown of production into separate parts and assigned to various people or machines for the purposes of efficiency
  25. John D. Rockefeller
    Oil industry tycoon; created the Standard Oil Company; became the richest man in the world
  26. Describe the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890: a) What were the provisions of the act? b) Why was the act, overall, a failure? c) Why was the act significant?