Enlightenment Test.txt

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Enlightenment Test.txt
2013-01-13 20:31:17

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  1. geocentric
    earth centered universe
  2. heliocentric
    sun centered universe
  3. scientific method
    • -logical method for gathering data & testing ideas through experimentation
    • -sir francis bacon helped develop it
  4. hobbes social contract
    -citizens give up power to a central gov. in exchange for security

    • -rule of law
  5. nicolaus copernicus
    • -developed the heliocentric theory
    • -25 years of studying the planets & stars pointed to this fact
  6. galileo
    • -challenged several ideas held by the church & greek scholars
    • -church arrested him & forced him to recant his beliefs
  7. descartes
    • -known for testing ideas using logic & math, not experimentation like other
    • -"I think, therefor I am"
  8. newton
    • -discovered gravity & laws of motion when an apple fell on his head
    • -developed idea of god as a clockmaker
  9. boyle
    • -developed chemistry
    • -theorized that small particles, atoms, made up earth opposed to aristotles theory of earth, wind, fire, & water
  10. hobbes
    -believed man is naturally selfish & a powerful gov. is needed to prevent chaos and conflict
  11. locke
    • -man has natural rights--life, liberty, & property
    • -consent of the governed--man can govern self, should control gov.
    • -role of gov. is to protect natural rights of citizens--otherwise they should be overthrown

    • -declaration of independence
    • -american revolution
    • -voting
  12. voltaire
    -individual freedoms/liberties

    • -1st amendment
  13. montesquieu
    -separation of powers/checks + balances in gov.

    • -3 branches who all check each other
    • -pres. can veto, congress can override & impeach, judiciary can declare something unconstitutional
  14. rousseau
    -consent of the governed--ppl control their gov.

    • -voting
    • -laws limit us to protect us
  15. rousseau's social contract
    -citizens give up liberties for common good
  16. beccaria
    • -rights for the accused
    • -jury trial, lawyer, illegal searches, fair punishment, etc.

    • -4,5,6,7, & 8 amendments
  17. secular vs. religious
    • -bcs. of scientific rev., enlightenment, and emphasis of proof people began to question god more than before
    • -led to a rise in secularism=worldliness, devotion to things of earth opposed to the divine
  18. individualism
    • -philosophes taught that the individual could determine the right & wrong for themselves & change gov. & society for the better
    • -sole purpose of gov. was to serve the individual
    • -humanism to its extreme
  19. medecine/anatomy
    • -first started disecting humans (illegal with church before)=this resulted in more accurate study
    • -first vaccinations
    • -small pox--dangerous at first
  20. scientific revolution
    -time when scientists began testing old ideas about the world & universe, they questioned "reality"
  21. salons
    -groups of scholars hanging out discussing topics