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What in the old regime caused distress?
- The first and second estates had the most rights and privilages while it was the third estate that payed for them. The third estate was the only group that was charged with taxes. These taxes went to sustaining the lifesyle of the other two estates.
- "[The] three estates, or classes: the First Estate was made up of the clergy; the Second, nobility; the Third, commoners." (Beers 31)
The king had what kind of power?
"[King] Louis XIV centralized power in the royal bureaucracy, the government departments which administered his policies. Louis's successors lacked his ability to govern. Nevertheless, they worked to preserve royal authority and maintained the rigid social structure of the Old Regime." (Beers 31)
What kind of privelages did the nobility (second estate) have?
- Becomee officers in the army
- Fill high offices of the church
- Exempt from most taxes
Who were the first estate? What privilages did they have?
- Higher clergy
- Administered the church
- Ran schools
- Kept birth and death records
- Cared for the poor
Who were the third estate?
"The vast majority of French people were commoners belonging to the Third Estate. The Third Estate included the bourgeoisie, or middle class, peasants and city workers." (Beers 32)
Who is included in the bourgeoisie? What did they believe in?
"... successful merchants and manufactures, educated lawyers and doctors, as well as small storekeepers and artisans. They resented the privileges enjoyed by nobles. Many criticized the Old Regime because they believed in the Enlightenment ideas of equality and social justice." (Beers 32)
What influenced the growing economic crisis?
- Poor harvests
- Many tolls to be payed by merchants as they delivered their products
- The huge debt that King Louis XIV, XV, and XVI continued to increase as they supported the wars they were fighting.
What character defects did King Louis XVI have?
- Not a very strong willed man
- "...Preferred to spend his days hunting or tinkering with puzzles rather than coping with economic problems." (Beers 33)
- Not very determined
Why did Louis XVI summon the Estates General?
He had hoped to win support for reforms that would restore economic stability.
What did the Third Estate demand at the Estates General Meeting?
That all of the estates meet together rather than seperately; which had been the story in the past.
Because of King Louis XVI dismissing the Third Estate's demand to have all three estates meet together, what oath was sworn and what did it entail?
- The Tennis Court Oath
- "... promising not to disband until they had written at constitution." (Beers 34)
What is the National Assembly?
"When the king insisted that the estates meet separately, deputies from the Third Estate declaired themselves the National Assembly. They claimed the right to write a constitution for France." (Beers 34)
Later the king hesitantly ordered the other two estates to join the National Assembly. It was the first peaceful step in the French Revolution.
What caused the storming of the Bastille?
Fear that the king had brought his troups to Versailles to dissolve the national Assembly and crush the revolution.
What reforms were made on August 4, 1789 by the National Assembly?
- Most of the feudal customs were abolished.
- Ended serfdom and tax exempt privileges of the nobles.
- All male citizens were made eligible for government and church positions.
What did the Declaration of the Rights of Man declare?
- Equality for all citizens under the law
- Protection of personal property
- Liberty to do everything which injures no one else
- Resistance to opression
- "Law can only prohibit such actions as are hurtful to society
- Law is expression of the general will. Every citizen has a right to participate personally or through his representative in its formation.
- No person shall be accused arrested or imprisoned except in the cases and according to the forms perscribed by law
- As all persons are held innocent until they shall have been declared guilty
- The free communication of ideas and opinios is one of the most precious of the rights of man. Every citizen may, accordingly, speak, write and prit with freedom, being responsible, however, for such abuses of this freedom as shall be defined by law." (Beers 36)
What caused the march on Versailles in October 1789?
- Women angry about high food prices
- Suspected that the king and the queen Marie Antoinette, were plotting against the National Assembly.
What did the mob demand of the Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette during the march on Versailles?
The king and his family were forced to move to France, where their activities could be monitored.
What did the National Assembly declair about religion and the Catholic Church?
- Freedom of worship
- Abolished the special privileges of the Catholic Church
- Passed the Civil Constitution of the Clergy => French gov't control of church; citizens to elect bishops and priests
What was effected by the Constitution of 1791?
- Limited monarchy
- Established a system of separation of powers
- Head of executive branch was the king => Legislature made laws => king could veto laws but legislature could override vito
- New system of courts setup as the judicial branch
- Divided France into 83 regions and replaced old provincial gov't's with locally elected officials
- Distinctions between clergy, nobles, and commoners disappeared
What was the reaction to the first stage of the revolution?
- Radiical revolutionaries: wanted a republic
- Nobles: constitution of 1791 went too far
What did the nobles do out of fear of the general population?
They became emigres, or political exiles, by fleeing france. They urged European rulers to oppose the revolutionaries in france.
What happened in June 1791? What happened as a reaction to their decision?
The royal family decided to flee the country. They were cought near the border, arrested and brought back to the capital. There they became prisoners of the Assembly.
In october 1791 the new Legislative Assembly, elected under the new constitution, met for the first time. How were the divisions between revolutionaries shown?
- The Assembly sat with similar thinking peers:
- Radical Revolutionaries: Right
- Moderate Revolutionaries: Left
- Views between: Center
Why did European monarchs feel they had to take steps against the French Revolutionaries and the revolution in general?
Because revolutionary ideas were spreading from France to pther parts of Europe. This caused unrest at home and abroad. Austria and Prussia were urged to invade France and restore Louis XVI to power by the emigres.
Leaders in France wanted war because they thought it would unite the people in defence of their homeland.
Who is Marie Antoinette?
Marie Antoinette was married at a very young age to the future king Louix XVI. This was to unite Austria and France in a truce.
Who were the Jacobins and what were their political views?
- The most radical of the revolutionaries
- Wanted the most radical chance => voted to kill the king
Why was king Louis XVI killed?
In November 1792, the National Convention found letters written by the king proving that he was plotting with the emigres to crush the revolution. He was tried and convicted for treason.
What happened during the Reign of Terror?
- The Committee of Public Safety was formed: had nearly dictatorial powers
- Waged a brutal campaign against people it considered enemies of France
Who lead the Reign of Terror?
What is a ?
- the device used most often during the reign of terror because of how quick and effective it is.
Who was Maximilien Robespierre?
- Lead the Committee of Public Safety.
- Utterly honest and dedicated to his ideals
- Inflexible and narrowminded
- Blieved the state must be ruthless against its enemies
- Was killed after France began to look better because the people began to question all of his murdering
What was the impact of the Revolution in daily life?
- All people were declared as equals
- All remaining feudal dues and customs were abolished
- Slavery in French colonies was ended
- The land of the emigres was confiscated.
- Styles in fashion and art had changed => simple dresses and long trousers
- Playwrights and painters poduced patriotic works that supported the revolution
- Established the metric system
- After Robespierre's death in July 1794 the radical phase of the revolution ended
Who is Napoleon Bonaparte?
- Born to a minor noble family and raised to be a military official
- Rose quickly in the army during the revolution because so many officers fled France.
- Commanded French troops that ousted the British from Toulon
- Married Josephine de Beauharnais => helped him because of her influential friends among the directors
- By age 27, was a general
What was the Directory?
- "The Constitution of 1795 established a new government, the Directory, which included an elected legislature and an executive brance with five directors. Only men who could read and who owned a certain amount of property could vote. As a result the middle class and wealthy landowners gained influence in the new government.
- The Directory, which lasted from 1795 to 1799, faced many problemt. The ive-man executive did not function efficiently, and corrupt deputies in the legislature bargained for political favors."
What is a "Coup d'etat"?
It is translated literally as "Cut off the head". What it means is to completely shut down the current government, leader, or "head" and replace it.
What is an Emperor?
It is an other word for king.
How did Napoleon build his empire?
- Overthrew the Directory, which the people were unhappy with to begin with, leading him to be admired by the people.
- He centralized power to himself and, while he did not return to the Old Regime, he kept a firm personal control of the government.
What was the blockade of Great Britain?
Napoleon ordered that all of the countries he had power over, and truces with, to not trade with Britain in an attempt to weaken it. It backfired and weakened the French economy.
What happened during the Invasion of Russia?
Napoleon's army kept gaining ground, however by the time that the army reached the capitol the russians had burned anything useful to the French to the ground. Leaving them with no food and no shelter. Many of the soldiers died.