Culture Concept

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Author:
gandalfthegrey
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192682
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Culture Concept
Updated:
2013-01-13 23:30:43
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Cultural Anthropology
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Midterm I Review
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  1. What does the notion of cultural relativism say?
    That behavior in one culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture.
  2. The belief that one's culture is superior to all other cultures, and the act of using one's cultural standards to judge another culture, are both known as....
    ethnocentrism
  3. Moral Relativism vs. Cultural Relativism
  4. Which one is a methodological tool?
    Cultural relativism
  5. What is cultural relativism used for?
    To avoid ethnocentric judgments of different cultures' beliefs and practices.
  6. Cultural relativism is a ________, not a ______ _______.
    method; moral position
  7. What does moral relativism imply?
    That there are no universal moral standards/ human rights
  8. As such, practices & belief systems of any culture are ______ because there are ____ universal standards.
    acceptable; no
  9. Important Aspects of Culture
  10. Culture is ____, it is not _______.
    learned; innate
  11. What is the process by which culture is learned by an individual?
    Enculturation
  12. By what three ways is culture transmitted/ transmitted through?
    • Observation
    • Interaction
    • Unconsciously
  13. How are cultural trait spread from group to group?
    Through diffusion.
  14. ____ diffusion occurs through trade, intermarriage, and war
    ____ diffusion occurs when one culture subjugates another and forces it's customs on the other
    ____ diffusion occurs when items are passed from group a to group c via group b.
    • Direct
    • Forced
    • Indirect
  15. The exchange of culture when two cultures have firsthand contact is known as _________.
    acculturation
  16. Define independent invention.
    Cultures learning through experimentation and invention, independent of borrowing from other cultures.
  17. Culture is _____, and made up of _____ and ______.
    shared; symbols; rituals
  18. Symbols, as described by Kottak, are "signs that have no _____ or _____ connection to the things that they signify"
    necessary; natural
  19. True/False: Symbols are verbal or non-verbal, have connections to the things they signify that are totally arbitrary, and have meanings that do not change over time.
    False. Meanings can change over time.
  20. What are symbols that are repeated over time called?
    Rituals.
  21. Culture is ______: if one part of the system changes, others do as well.
    integrated
  22. Key values that integrate each culture and distinguish them from other cultures are known as ____ values.
    core
  23. Culture is ____ and _______: we are not passive recipients of culture.
    active and creative
  24. Define agency.
    The actions that individuals take in forming and transforming culture.
  25. The organization and power with society are known as ______.
    structure
  26. Culture is both ______ and _______: humans are unique in their ability to adapt culturally, but some adaptations can be harmful.
    adaptive; mal-adaptive
  27. Levels of Culture
  28. Traditions that extend beyond national borders are known as ______ culture.
    international
  29. Traditions shared by citizens of the same nation are known as ______ culture.
    national
  30. Traditions shared by peoples in a given micro-local are known as ______ culture.
    local
  31. Commonalities of Culture
  32. Social living, incest taboos, and sharing food are examples of _____ cultural features.
    universal
  33. The western tradition of living in a nuclear family and the African tradition of a lineage system are examples of ______cultural features.
    general
  34. Unique features of each culture are known as _____ cultural features.
    particular
  35. What is globalization?
    The process by which cultures throughout the world are linked.

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