Fluid & Electrolytes

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Fluid & Electrolytes
2010-05-14 04:09:42
Fluid Electrolytes

Term 2 Exam 1 Review
Show Answers:

  1. When comparing blood plasma and interstitial fluid:
    they both have the same kind of ions.
  2. What is considered total input?
    anything liquid, IV fluids, foods that become fluid at room temp
  3. What does insensible mean when related to fluid and electrolytes?
    amount of fluids that cannot be measured, ie. skin 300-500 ml, breathing 400-500 ml, feces 100 ml
  4. Normal urine output:
    1,000-1,500 mL or 1-1.5 L
  5. 1 kg of body weight loss = ?
    1 L of fluid loss
  6. What kinds of signs and symptoms are shown in a patient with excess extracellular fluid?
    sacral edema, pedal edema (legs), dependent edema and lungs
  7. Right sided failure (fluid overload) = ?
    neck vein distention, hepatomegaly
  8. Left sided failure (fluid overload) = ?
    lungs (crackes and rales) and pulmonary edema
  9. Patient with vomiting and diarrhea for 3 days, what is the most accurate way of knowing if they have a fluid deficit (fluid status)?
    changes in daily weight measurements
  10. How do we know if that same patient is adapting to the excess fluid loss?
    skin turgor
  11. Besides diarrhea, what gives you fluid imbalance?
    constipation or bowel obstruction
  12. Same pateint is severely dehydrated, what is the best way to rectify the situation?
    Isotonic IV solution
  13. Common isotonic solution = ?
    0.9 % normal saline
  14. Hypotonic solution = ?
    0.45% normal saline
  15. Hypertonic solution = ?
    2.0% normal saline
  16. Osmosis?
    process of moving water from high to low concentration
  17. Diffusion?
    process of moving solutes from high to low concentration
  18. Filtration?
    pressure from high to low
  19. All three types of transport above are?
  20. Active Transport requires?
  21. Active Transport substances:
    protein, sugar, glucose, carbs and amino acids, all electrolytes and waste
  22. Albuminuria?
    too much albumin in the urine (kidney problems)
  23. Albumin is a form of?
  24. Oncotic/Colliod/Osmotic:
    all pressure against the cell wall
  25. When administering plasma protein via IV to a patient, what do we monitor for?
    signs and symptoms of fluid overload
  26. What electrolyte has the greatest effect on water?
  27. Normal sodium range?
    135-145 mEq
  28. If someone has a serum sodium level of 130 what does this mean?
    hyponatremia/hyperkalemia (restrict fluids)
  29. Patient is hypernatremic (sodium of 180), what behavioral changes will we see?
    agitation and confusion
  30. Patient has undergone extensive surgery, what electrolyte would be most affected?
  31. Potassium Loss = ?
  32. Most extracellular electrolyte = ?
  33. Most intracellular electrolyte = ?
  34. If a patient has hyperkalemia what should be done first?
    • assess and do VS
    • tell MD/RN
    • check for irregular heart beat (will be slow)
  35. What organ is most affected by potassium?
  36. High potassium = ?
    slow heart beat
  37. Signs and symptoms of hyperkalemia?
    restlessness, confusion, dysrrhythmias, vomiting, diarrhea and weakness
  38. Level of 1.9 for potassium is considered?
  39. Normal calcium levels?
    • 4.8 - 8.3 (bound)
    • 5.0 - 10.1 (unbound)
  40. Normal chloride levels?
    3.5 - 5.0
  41. Hypokalemic/hypernatremic:
    too much sodium
  42. S/S of hypokalemia/hyponatremia?
    edema, neck vein distention, ascites, dependent edema and rales
  43. What do we use chloride for?
    makes HCl
  44. Patient with a positive chvostek sign is?
  45. S/S of chvostek?
    facial twitch
  46. Patient has elevated calcium levels due to hyperparathyroidism (controls calcium and phosphate), what is the drug that will force the calcium back into the cell?
  47. Calcitonin is produced by?
    the thyroid
  48. Prior to drawing ABG's what test to we perform?
    allen's test
  49. What is the allen's test?
    occlusion of the ulnar and radial arteries separately to see if the hand changes color, if pressing on ulnar we are hoping for no color change because the radial has enough flow and vice versa
  50. What are the two body systems involved in maintaining normal pH?
    respiratory (CO2) and bicarbonate buffer system (urinary)
  51. Patient with chronic renal failure has?
    high ammonia
  52. Kidney excretes ammonia which maintains?
    the acid base balance
  53. What does the PaCO2 level indicate?
    partial pressure of CO2 = respiratory function, how well one is ventilated
  54. If you are blowing off CO2 you will have?
  55. Normal CO2 levels = ?
  56. Normal O2 levels = ?
    80-100 on ABG's and 95-100 on pulseox
  57. Alkalosis = ?
    low CO2
  58. Acidosis = ?
    high CO2