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the term ____________ originated from the term "information".
____________ refers to useful, meaningful, and organized data.
______________________ allows for digital devices to communicate textual and image information.
information technology (IT)
who described information technology (IT) as any technology assisting in the communication of information, and when?
information technology (IT) is any technology that assists in the communication of information by (5):
two devices used to convert raw data into information that can be used to solve problems:
the physical components used to process data:
give some examples of hardware:
- memory chips (RAM)
- storage devices (magnetic disks, tapes, optical disks, monitor printers)
the computer programs (algorithms) that direct all hardware components to solve problems and derive practical solutions:
give some examples of software:
- windows NT or XP
- Mac OS
five fundamental operations of the computer:
entry of data via hardware:
converts data from the CPU into information that can be used to solve problems:
internal (short-term and small volumes) or external (long-term and larger volumes):
the point at which post-processing can occur. a monitor, for example:
how data and images can be sent anywhere in the world:
name various types of communication technologies (9):
- movie cameras
- cell phones
three key elements of computer communication technology:
- communication media
- communication networks
used to send and receive signals from the computers by converting digital to analog/analog to digital:
modem (can be internal or external, and transmits data in bps)
converting digital to analog:
converting analog to digital:
- digital to analog: modulate
- analog to digital: demodulate
the medium by which data is transmitted (ex. wires, coaxial cables, fiber optics, microwave, and satellites):
connects several computers and allows for data to be shared:
the layouts of communication networks that include host computer, nodes, packets, protocols, and other devices (hubs, bridges, routers):
the process of changing data to information:
list some informatics subspecialties (7):
- medical informatics
- health care informatics
- biomedical informatics
- nursing informatics
- imaging informatics (radiology informatics)
- cardiology informatics
- clinical informatics
the application of IT to healthcare or medicine is referred to as ____________ and ________________.
- health care informatics
- medical informatics
medical imaging informatics encompasses several modalities, such as (6):
- diagnostic radiography
- magnetic resonance imaging
- medical sonography
- nuclear medicine
- computed tomography
- radiation therapy
medical imaging informatics plays a significant role in health care since it is used for (6):
- assessment and planning
- guidance of procedures communication
the tasks performed by computers in a digital imaging department include (7):
- digital image acquisition
- digital image processing
- digital image display
- image storing and archiving
- computer networking
- image transmission
a computer-based system for storing and transmitting images:
the major components of PACS:
- acquisition modalities
- computer network database server
- archival system
- soft-copy display workstation
- connected to HIS and RIS
collects and processes data in order to provide the user with information that can help with problem solving and decision making:
health information system (HIS)
two major components to HIS:
- central information system (CIS)
- administrative information system (AIS)
a system that includes order entry system, monitoring system, nursing information system, laboratory information system, and radiology information system:
central information system (CIS)
a system that includes registration, scheduling, financial payroll, human resources, quality assurance, and contract management:
administrative information system (AIS)
some important aspects of (RIS):
- order entry
- scheduling for various imaging procedures
- report generation
- billing preparation
- other related functions (inventory monitoring, statistical analysis, communications concerning daily operations)
_______________ is replacing the paper-based medical records.
electronic health record (EHR)
a secure, real-time, point-of-care patient-centric information resource for physicians:
- the electronic health record (EHR)
- as defined by HIMSS
the six components of EHR:
- order entry
- clinical documentation
- data repository
- decision support
- results reporting
- clinical messaging and email
deals with how efficient and effective the imaging modalities, PACS, and information systems are able to share data in a seamless manner:
some requirements for effective and efficient communication (5):
- data dictionary
- uniform language
- master patient index
- communication standards
connects a system so it can exchange data:
interface (newer systems are referred to as interface engines which connect several systems)
provides definition of terms used in a particular enterprise:
a database that contains all information about the patient and plays an important role in identifying and locating the records belonging to the patient under study:
MPI (master patient index)
the two communication standards within the radiology department that communicate textual data and images:
- HL-7 (textual)
- DICOM (images)
the protection of information systems against unauthorized access to or modification of information, whether in storage, processing or transit, and against the denial of service to authorized users, including those measures necessary to detect, document, and counter such threats:
- information security
- as defined by the U.S. National Information Systems Security
the three categories of security threats:
- social engineering attacks
- hardware attacks
- software attacks
a security threat in which data and information are obtained from authorized users by means of deception:
social engineering attacks
a security threat by means of attacks on hardware components. (for example: the theft of the actual computer):
a security threat involving attacks on the software by means of viruses like worms, Trojan horses, malicious programs, and demial of service:
offer a means to fight against security threats with the use of antivirus and spyware detection programs:
security methods can include (6):
- physical security
- spyware detection software
- encryption and keys
- wireless security measures
name examples of various ways a technologist can act as an informaticist (5):
- by being well versed in technology he/she can provide the best images for the radiologist
- must access images and send them to PACS
- can perform QC on image acquisition devices, display devices, and PACS
- can educate others on advances in technology
- can assist in image post-processing, imaging research and publishing ventures
______________ have developed a Fellowship curriculum for radiologists
Electronic Imaging Technology (EIT) specialists
The EIT Fellowship curriculum developed for radiologists includes:
- image analysis and processing
- image display technologies
- PACS (storage, networks, and PACS administration)
- IT and systems integration (information systems, data secureity, economics, legal issues, and research)
The ___________________ have helped to develop a curriculum that includes IT, clinical informatics, PACS administration, and academics.
Electronic Imaging Technology specialists
______________ has developed over time which requires the radiologist to have IT skills in order to provide leadership in applying IT to radiology.
name the three specific areas a PACS administrator addresses:
- technical competencies
behavioral duties of a PACS administrator include:
- workflow analysis
- reading environment
- customer relations management
business duties of a PACS administrator include:
- examining competencies in PACS readiness
- strategic vision
- vendor selection
- sustaining PACS
technical competencies that are the duties of a PACS administrator include:
- systems management
- security systems
provided through PACS Administration in Radiology Certification (PARCA):
PACS certification provided through PARCA at four different levels:
- Certified PACS Associate (CPAS)
- Certified PACS Interface Analyst (CPIA)
- Certified PACS Systems Analyst (CPSA)
- Certified PACS System Manager (CPSM)
___________________ is a step beyond a PACS administrator.
Certification in Imaging Informatics (CIIP)
Certification in Imaging Informatics (CIIP) was founded by:
- Society of Informatics in Medicine (SIIM)
- American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT)
details covered concerning CIIP by SIIM and ARRT:
- eligibility criteria
- examination development process
- ( @ www.siim.org)
American Board of Imaging Informatics (ABII) was founded by:
- Society of Informatics in Medicine (SIIM)
- American Society of Radiologic Technologists (ASRT)
the mission of the American Board of Imaging Informatics (ABII) was to enhance:
- patient care
- competence in imaging informatics
name two "extra" responsibilities of the ABII:
- to manage the Imaging Informatics Professional (IIP)
- award the Certified Imaging Informatics Professional (CIIP) to qualified individuals
Imaging Informatics tools specific to radiology:
- quality control reporting
- technologist peer review
- communication between radiologist and referring physician
Educating oneself on the needs of the patient to better meet those needs is being achieved through:
________________ takes into consideration all factors involved that would ensure the imaging operation is working properly.
give three reasons why QC is still required when imaging operations are conducted using DR:
- human error (spontaneous and random)
- machines can degrade over time
- combination of human and machines increases room for error
the visible, ongoing effort to collect information about an imaging operation to help improve efficiency and quality:
Quality Control (QC)
When it comes to QC and QA, which program is a part of the other?
QC is part of a QA program
seeks to get the most efficient performance from both the imaging facility and the physician:
Quality Assurance (QA)
a well established _______________ can help prevent malpractice claims and improve efficiency and quality of the department.
Quality Assurance (QA) program
QC is accomplished through four steps:
- Acceptance Testing (AT)
- Establishment of Baseline Performance
- Diagnosis of changes in performance
- Verification of Correction of Deterioration
determines whether equipment meets the requirements of state and federal regulatory agencies as well as purchase contract requirements:
Acceptance Testing (AT)
Acceptance Testing (AT) is usually the responsibility of:
- the medical physicist
- (American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) have defined specific tests for CR)
________________ are the performances that will be monitored regularly and _________________ are the maximum deviation from the norm.
- control limits (legally no deviation of more than 2%)
a _______________ allows for accurate diagnosis.
various qualities of an image include:
- prevention of artifacts
a feature to take advantage of information that already exists in RIS:
DICOM modality worklist (MWL)
in-depth info about patient (each step) as they flow through the hospital:
_______________________ can help prevent human errors from the technologist entering data at the time of the procedure.
The pre-entry of data with HIS and RIS
Name some details that can be determined by MetaData, offering precise data required to support an accurate QA/QC program:
- acquisition date/time
- image date/time
- part x-rayed
- techniques used
- current of x-ray tube
- collimation parameters
- use of filter
- exposure to patient
- cell use
_______________ can be used to ensure proper positioning of the cassette with the part being x-rayed.
manual demographic aids
calibration for nonuniformity is also called:
requires exposing the receptor to a uniform field of radiation in order to check for the uniformity of the beam:
during the flat field process, the equipment can compensate for differences in gain and artifacts, such as ________________.
Digital Radiography is considered to be RIM, which is:
Reusable Image Media
If the IR is not erased completely, phantom images or _______________ can appear.
light artifacts produced consistently at the receptor can be due to:
Name the three key factors routinelychecked, no matter the tool or equipment, and an example of one tool that checks these factors:
- linearity, resolution, sharpness
- Fuji One Shot Phantom Plus
With the Fuji One Shot, a _________ is used to check detail, and a __________ is used to check noise.
In reject analysis, almost half of the images are rejected due to:
positioning errors (46.9%)
created by using higher techniques than recommended by the technique chart and using plus densities with AEC:
exposure factor creep
used by engineers and scientists to mean the ratio between the highest detectable radiation level and the lowest detectable radiation level for an image receptor:
used by technologists to mean the ratio of the highest exposure factor selection or the lowest exposure factor selection on the x-ray generator that will produce an acceptable radiographic image:
the ____________ puts the image within diagnostic range, while ___________ give the ranges of gray needed for specific anatomical parts.
with DR, the ____________ value is much lower than the ___________.
- exposure latitude value (100)
- receptor latitude (10,000)
- *** screen film latitude is about 2
when an image is underexposed the image will appear __________, while overexposure __________________
with the guidance of histograms and the look-up table, changes in ____________ are made to improve contrast in DR.
helps in matching the appearance of the image on different electronic displays and helps to equalize the human observer's perception of contrast in light and in dart areas of the image.
- Gray-Scale Display Function (GSDF)
- specified by DICOM
Some electronic displays change Gray-Scale Display Function (GSDF) automatically for:
- variations in ambient illumination
- changes in display performance
_________________ has defined QC tests for electronic displays intended for primary interpretation.
AAPM Task Group 18
list errors that can occur in the delivery of DR images from acquisition stations to PACS (7):
- transmission can be interrupted w/o any notification of sender
- image can arrive safely only to be deleted by cache
- image can arrive w/o critical information
- incorrect GSDF calibration
- display may have inadequate pixel matrix to display full resolution (loss of resolution, detail or can produce Moire pattern)
- incorrect or missing demographics or annotations
- inadequate viewing conditions due to high ambient illumination and glare
Reminder!!! after 8 hours, _______% of image quality may be lost.
Who verifies patient ID and exam info and how often?
Who verifies patient positioning and how often?
Who verifies image quality (whether to release or repeat) and how often?
- lead technologist
- each image
Who verifies exams in PACS and how often?
- lead technologist
- each exam
Who reconciles patient data & image counts in PACS and how often?
- informatics (IT)
Who reports substandard images and how often?
Who erases cassette-based image receptors and how often?
Who tests image receptor uniformity how often?
Who cleans cassette-based image receptors and how often?
Who compiles and reviews reject analysis data and how often?
Who verifies display calibrations and how often?
- clinical engineer
Who verifies x-ray generator functions and how often?
- medical physicist
Who verifies receptor calibrations and how often?
- medical physicist
Who reviews QC indicators and how often?
In the U.S. the specifics of QC for digital mammography is set by the federal government under the:
Mammography Quality and Standards Act (MQSA)
Tomosynthesis in DM was recently approved by who and when?