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What are the 4 parts of a tubular organ in order from the inside out?
Mucosa, Submucosa, Muscularis (Circular & Longitudinal), Serosa
Made of epithelial cells
for adsorption, digestion, secreation
endodermal in origin
-made of loose connective tissue
-has vasculature, nerves, lymph flowing through it
-glandular and flexible
-has nerve endings that synapse from the muscles.
-Important for communication
the smooth muscle layers of a tubular organ are called?
- -circular layers
- -longitudinal layers
this smooth muscles that help move and is always next to the serosa
this smooth muscle layer crushes ans is always by the submucosa.
This layer of the tubular organ secretes sera to reduce friction and is bound tightly to the perimetrium or perineum. Made of secretory epithelial cells.
Testis are responsible for what 2 things?
- testosterone production
The epididymis is responsible for what 2 things?
The penis is made of what kind of tissues?
Components of Testes
- Interstitium- leydig cells, bld & lymph vessles, connective tissue
- Seminiferious Tubule- Peritubular myoid cells, basement membrane, sertoli cells, sperm
These are considered the nurse cells bc they take care of the germ cells
Starting at the testis and working out to the skin, what are the tissue layers of the scrotum you will see?
- Tunica albuginea
- Tunica vaginalis visceral
- Tunica vaginalis parietal
- Tunica dartos
This part of the epididymis has thin epithelial walls, sperm will stay 2-3 months and the sperm to fluid ratio is high
this part of the epididymis is used mainly for transport
in this section of the epididymis, sperm has the ability to fertilize but are non-mobile, they won't be as dilute, and it's used also for storage.
This attaches the testis to the body?
This takes sperm from the epididymis to the urethra
3 major parts to the spermatocord are:
- Pampiniform plexus
- vas deferens
- cremaster muscle
5 ways to thermoregulate:
- 1. scrotal skin is hairless and sweats
- 2. Tunica dartos- lowers the testis away from body
- 3. cremaster muscle- draws testis up
- 4. absence of fat
- 5. Pampiniform plexus- counter current heat exchange
4 functions of the cervix:
- 1. sperm transport
- 2. long strands of mucus
- 3. sperm barrier
- 4. blocks bacterial invasion
3 layers of the uterus are:
- perimetrium (outside)
- endometrium (inside the body)
3 layers to the broad ligament
- mesometrium- hold up the uterus
- mesosalpinx- holds up the oviduct
- mesovarium- holds up the ovary
What are the 3 different types of uteruses?
- Simplex (human)
- Bicornuate (cows, sheep, pig, goats, horses)
- Duplex (rabbits) (Marsupials)
What is the function of the oviduct?
- transport ovum
- site of fertilization
- storage and transport of spermatozoa
What are the 3 major parts of the oviduct?
- isthmus (closest to the uterus)- reservior for sperm(bind to mucosal layer)
What is the 4 stages of Follicle growth?
Primordial, Primary, Secondary, Antral
This connects to the ampulla to the uterus. Made of thick muscular walls
Reservoir for sperm (bind to mucosal epithelium)
Released from cilla after ovulation
This is the site of fertilization
Ampulla of the oviduct
The ovary contains what 4 major layers?
- Germinal Epithelium (outside layer)
- Tunica Albuginea (thick protective layer)
- Cortex (holds oocytes and somatic cells)
- Medulla (bld supply)
What are the 4 types of intercellular regulation?
4 major categories of hormones are:
- Steroids (androgens/ estrogens)
- Proteins & Glycoproteins (LH)
- Peptides (Prolactin)
This type of hormone is lipophilic, cholesterol backboned, synthesized in the gonads and adrenal gland, are carried through the bld stream via carrier proteins
Oxytocin is made where?
- 2 areas of the hypothalamus
- 1. paraventricular nucei
- 2. superoptic nuclei
Oxytocin is secreted from?
The Anterior Pituitary has many different cell types including:
- gonadotropins (LH, FSH)
LH in the gonads effects what and how?
effects leydig cells in the interstitum of the testis and thecca interna cells of the follicle causing release of testosterone
FSH in the gonads effects what and how?
indirectly effects estrogen; has a + effect on sertoli cells and granulosa cells via inhibin and aromatase
What is the fetal origin of the uterus & oviducts?
What develops from the genital ridges in the female?
What's the most important result of tight junctions between adjacent sertoli cells?
Blood testis barrier
GnRH can take the classical endocrine pathway while testosterone can take that or this other pathway.
where in the ovarian follicle are androgens made?
theca interna cells under LH control produce androgens from cholesterol progesterone is also made from cholesterol (theca externa = connective tissue support structure)
Sex of the fetus depends on:
- 1. inherited genes
- 2. gonadogenesis
- 3. formation & maturation of acc. repro organs
site of fertilization is?
ampula isthmus junction in the oviduct
Connects ampulla to uterus
thick muscular walls
reservior for sperm by binding to mucosal epithelium
released after ovulation from cilla
site of fertilization
sperm do NOT attach to it
Anterior pituitary uses what type of communication from the hypothalamus?
cellular (think GnRH)
Posterior Pituitary uses what kind of communication from the hypothalamus?
Neuron based- neurons with axon buttons (think oxytocin)
What is the rate limiting step in testosterone production?
STAR enzyme that converts cholesterol to pregnenolone
phenotypic sex happens when in humans and pigs?
- 7-8 weeks in humans
- day 26 in pigs
What route do the PGCs take?
Yolk Sac->endoderm->mesoderm->mesentary->genital ridge
how do the primordial germ cells move?
wolffian duct system is for the ?
Mullerian duct is for ?
the paramesonephric duct
mesonephric kidney produces the?
Wollian ducts influence the production of what other ducts?
the Mullerian ducts
what 2 factors are needed for male differentiation?
- sertoli cells- produce anti-Mullerian hormone
- Leydig cells- produce testosterone
- (if you don't have the SRY gene, you won't develop the male)
Wolffian ducts turn into?
Vas Deferens, Seminal vesicles, epididymis
The Mullarian Duct turns into:
males req this for external genital development
5 alpha reductase
The urogenital sinus becomes what during differentiation to a female?
bladder and vagina
During differentiation the metaphenix becomes what?
During differentiation, the mesophenix becomes?
Nothing, it disappears
Defeminization and masculanization are both induced by?
What area of the brain is effected during differentiation?
preoptic area (POA)- more so in males than females
The urogenital sinus becomes what in the male?
- bulbourethral glands