Anthropological Theory

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Anthropological Theory
2013-01-14 02:19:25
Cultural Anthropology

Midterm I Review
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  1. Degenerationism is the biblical cause for variation in human society, which says what about people's culture?
    Prior to the Tower of Babel, all people belonged to the same culture.
  2. What do progressivists believe?
    That all societies started out primitive, but were progressing to a more advanced state of being (towards civilization)
  3. The fundamental similarity of human thought throughout the world is known as the ______ _____ of humankind.
    psychic unity
  4. Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-1881)
  5. What were Morgan's stages of human cultural development? (3 stages)
    • Savagery (lower, middle, upper)
    • Barbarism (lower, middle, upper)
    • Civilization
  6. What do these stages correlate with? (3 things)
    • Family structure
    • Subsistence
    • Technology
  7. Sir Edward Burnett Tylor (1832-1917)
  8. What did Tylor's study of survivals say?
    That everything in contemporary society that did not have a function was a survival from a previous stage of cultural evolution.
  9. List the evolution of religion according to Tylor. (3 things)
    • Animism
    • Polytheism
    • Monotheism
  10. Functionalism
  11. Functionalism examines how culture functioned as a _______.
  12. What is psychological functionalism?
    The idea that cultural institutions function to meet the basic physical & psychological needs of people in society. (nutrition, safety, reproduction, bodily comforts, relaxation, movement, growth)
  13. Who came up with the concept of psychological functionalism?
  14. What does structural functionalism examine?
    How cultural institutions maintained the equilibrium & cohesion of a society.
  15. This concept states that is is deriving _______ laws that govern human behavior.
  16. Who came up with the concept of structural functionalism?
  17. Cultural Ecology
  18. Soci-cultural adaptation occurs through interaction of humans with their _____ ______.
    natural environment
  19. Define ecology.
    The interaction of living things with their environment.
  20. Define cultural ecology.
    How humans use culture to adapt to their environment.
  21. Julian Steward
  22. True/False: Steward believed that cultures in similar environments follow similar cultural development.
  23. What are subsistence & productive stages known as?
    Culture core
  24. What is the term for cultures sharing similar (cultural) core features.
    Culture type.
  25. What is the hierarchy of cultural types? (4 types)
    • Band
    • Tribe
    • Chiefdom
    • State
  26. Leslie White
  27. " The purpose of ______ is to serve the needs of ______"
    culture; man
  28. Culture advances as more ____ is captured.
  29. E (energy) x _(______)= P(product)
    T; technology
  30. Cultural Materialism
  31. What does cultural materialism base their explanations of culture on?
    Scientific explanations
  32. What is classified as mode of production?
    Culture, environment, and technology
  33. What is classified as mode of reproduction?
    Things that affect size of population, such birth & death rates and migration.
  34. What are the 3 levels of human societies?
    • Infrastructure
    • Structure
    • Superstructure
  35. Infrastructure involves mode of production, such as.... (2 examples).
    • hunting & gathering
    • pastoralism
    • agriculture
    • industrial & post-industrial
  36. It also involves mode of reproduction, such as...(1 example)
    • Demography
    • Fertility
    • Mortality
  37. Structure involves organization of family & household life, division of labor, gender roles (______ economy) and political organizations, military, police, and corporations (______ economy)
    domestic; political
  38. Superstructure is the _____ & _____ system of each cultural group.
    belief; value
  39. Structuralism
  40. Structuralism is the belief that ....?
    universal structures in human thought have similar characterizations in all cultures.
  41. What is the result of these structures?
    Social interaction.
  42. Structuralism is opposed to what?
    Cultural materialism
  43. Claude Levi-Strauss
  44. Strauss came up with the concept of binary opposition, which stats that...?
    the universal aspects of classification is opposition or contrast
  45. Symbolic (Interpretive) Anthropology
  46. Who said that "Man is an animal suspended in webs of significance he himself has spun"
  47. Anthropology is an interpretive discipline in search of ______, not an experimental science in search of law.
  48. Cultures construct their reality via ______ that each culture attaches meaning to.
  49. Clifford Geertz
  50. What operates "as the vehicle of culture" according to Geertz?
  51. What is "thick description"?
    Sorting through layers of significance to derive meaning from a native's speech.
  52. How are cultural meanings deciphered?
    In particular historical and cultural contexts.
  53. Feminism & Anthropology
  54. Feminists believe that anthropology is based on a male-centered bias, and is therefore _______.
  55. What is the term for the social/cultural construction of difference between men and women?
  56. Gender inequality states that historically women's lives/concerns/desires have been _____ to those of men.
  57. Postmodern Antrhopology
  58. What do postmodernists believe about objectivity?
    That total objectivity is never possible.
  59. Foucalt described _____ as social relations characterized by dominance ad subjugation.
  60. Bourdieu describes _______ as systems of practice (habits) that peoples/cultures develop over time.
  61. Lyotard describes the death of _______ as comprehensive explanations of historical knowledge & human experience.