Card Set Information
Midterm I Review
Degenerationism is the biblical cause for variation in human society, which says what about people's culture?
Prior to the Tower of Babel, all people belonged to the same culture.
What do progressivists believe?
That all societies started out primitive, but were progressing to a more advanced state of being (towards civilization)
The fundamental similarity of human thought throughout the world is known as the ______ _____ of humankind.
Lewis Henry Morgan
What were Morgan's stages of human cultural development? (3 stages)
Savagery (lower, middle, upper)
Barbarism (lower, middle, upper)
What do these stages correlate with? (3 things)
Sir Edward Burnett Tylor (1832-1917)
What did Tylor's study of survivals say?
That everything in contemporary society that did not have a function was a survival from a previous stage of cultural evolution.
List the evolution of religion according to Tylor. (3 things)
Functionalism examines how culture functioned as a _______.
What is psychological functionalism?
The idea that cultural institutions function to meet the basic physical & psychological needs of people in society. (nutrition, safety, reproduction, bodily comforts, relaxation, movement, growth)
Who came up with the concept of psychological functionalism?
What does structural functionalism examine?
How cultural institutions maintained the equilibrium & cohesion of a society.
This concept states that is is deriving _______ laws that govern human behavior.
Who came up with the concept of structural functionalism?
Soci-cultural adaptation occurs through interaction of humans with their _____ ______.
The interaction of living things with their environment.
Define cultural ecology.
How humans use culture to adapt to their environment.
True/False: Steward believed that cultures in similar environments follow similar cultural development.
What are subsistence & productive stages known as?
What is the term for cultures sharing similar (cultural) core features.
What is the hierarchy of cultural types? (4 types)
" The purpose of ______ is to serve the needs of ______"
Culture advances as more ____ is captured.
E (energy) x _(______)= P(product)
What does cultural materialism base their explanations of culture on?
What is classified as mode of production?
Culture, environment, and technology
What is classified as mode of reproduction?
Things that affect size of population, such birth & death rates and migration.
What are the 3 levels of human societies?
Infrastructure involves mode of production, such as.... (2 examples).
hunting & gathering
industrial & post-industrial
It also involves mode of reproduction, such as...(1 example)
Structure involves organization of family & household life, division of labor, gender roles (______ economy) and political organizations, military, police, and corporations (______ economy)
Superstructure is the _____ & _____ system of each cultural group.
Structuralism is the belief that ....?
universal structures in human thought have similar characterizations in all cultures.
What is the result of these structures?
Structuralism is opposed to what?
Strauss came up with the concept of binary opposition, which stats that...?
the universal aspects of classification is opposition or contrast
Symbolic (Interpretive) Anthropology
Who said that "Man is an animal suspended in webs of significance he himself has spun"
Anthropology is an interpretive discipline in search of ______, not an experimental science in search of law.
Cultures construct their reality via ______ that each culture attaches meaning to.
What operates "as the vehicle of culture" according to Geertz?
What is "thick description"?
Sorting through layers of significance to derive meaning from a native's speech.
How are cultural meanings deciphered?
In particular historical and cultural contexts.
Feminism & Anthropology
Feminists believe that anthropology is based on a male-centered bias, and is therefore _______.
What is the term for the social/cultural construction of difference between men and women?
Gender inequality states that historically women's lives/concerns/desires have been _____ to those of men.
What do postmodernists believe about objectivity?
That total objectivity is never possible.
Foucalt described _____ as social relations characterized by dominance ad subjugation.
Bourdieu describes _______ as systems of practice (habits) that peoples/cultures develop over time.
Lyotard describes the death of _______ as comprehensive explanations of historical knowledge & human experience.