Immigration and Pornography, Exam 3

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Author:
lauren
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19277
Filename:
Immigration and Pornography, Exam 3
Updated:
2010-05-14 08:18:54
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Sociology
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Description:
Contemporary Problems Unit 3
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  1. # of illegal immigrants in the US
    12 million
  2. requirements of strawberry crops
    • high skilled, luxury crop
    • resist mechanization and requires intensive human labor
  3. What did illegal migrate workers do for California Ag production?
    Illegal migrate workers subsidized it.
  4. History of migrant farm workers:
    • 1920 - 2 million
    • 1940 - 1 million
    • 1970 - 200,000
    • today - about 1 million
  5. cesar chavez
    led United Farm Workers Association to unionize strawberry farming
  6. the average strawberry field worker is...
    • 29
    • male
    • from mexico
    • earns $7500 for 25 weeks of work
  7. hourly wages declined _ since 1980
    50%
  8. the strawberry industry is worth _
    $1 billion to $840 million a year
  9. _ of strawberries are grown in the US
    80%
  10. strawberry farming is:
    • high investment
    • can yield high profits
    • dependant on migrant labor
    • often produced through sharecropping
  11. risks in strawberry farming:
    • market prices fluctuate
    • weather
  12. sharecropper farmers are :
    • often trapped in servitude
    • therefore they violate labor laws more than the companies which employ them because of the expensive loans they owe
  13. UFW membership
    began at 80,000 to 1/3 of the members today
  14. growers wage structure...
    discourages Americans from farm work
  15. 1952 Presidents Commission on Migratory Labor
    • codemned living conditions of illegal immigrants employed as migrant laborers
    • it was ignored by congress
  16. Immigration Reform and Control Act (1986)
    • sanctions against employers who hire illegal immigrants
    • also encouraged more illegal immigration by providing amnesty for illegal immigrants who could provide proof of working in US (SAW).
  17. ratio of employer to federal agents enforcing labor laws in California
    1 million employers : 200 federal agents
  18. SAW
    1970s program; gov offered amnesty; they thought 350,000 would register but 1.3 million applied- chaos
  19. Arizona SB 1070
    • requires aliens to carry registration at all times; police can ask them for it at any time
    • problems: may be abused, much resources, racial stereotypes, unconstitutional, police power
  20. Policy solutions from Schlosser:
    • enforce existing laws
    • create rural development in Mexico
    • unionization
    • national worker ID program
    • building a wall
    • increase min wage and enforce labor laws
    • improve working conditions and wages
  21. How did Reubon Sturman fall?
    • tax evasion
    • extortion
    • ... his monopoly collapsed and the porn industry could expand
  22. most accurate definition of obscene
    what the government defines it as
  23. Deep Throat (1972)
    • First mainstream porno movie
    • cost $22,000 to make
    • total gross of $25 million in 2 years
    • presented "porno chic"
    • starred Linda Lovelace
  24. Miller v. California
    • developed a system for judging what is obscene. the average person thinks it violates:
    • 1- community standards
    • 2- depicts sex as offensive
    • 3- lacks political, scientifics and artistic value
  25. porn in the 1970s
    easy to convist
  26. porn in the 1980s
    Regan Admin. enforces more laws lead to more convictions
  27. porn in the early 1990's
    under the Clinton Admin. prosecution stopped prosecution; Janet Reno ended porn task force; resulted in porn production increased
  28. todays porn
    became more extreme with the internet and went worldwide
  29. porn industry worth _ in US
    $12-14 billion
  30. porn industry is worth _ worldwide
    $97 billion
  31. 1970s porn industry in US worth _
    $5 to 10 million
  32. Progress of porn
    pulp novels (sex life of a cop) >peep shows (playboy 1953) > vcr/dvd (deep throat)> now: men's clubs, internet 2.0, global economics
  33. Playboy
    1953, Hugh Hefner created the magazine making sex a commodidy and entering the modern era of porn
  34. Police raid Sturman
    1964; found "sex life of a cop" in his warehouse
  35. Sturman obsenity charges
    brought 5 times but never convicted
  36. progress of porn films
    • 1920 to 50 - 2000 films made
    • 1973 - sex absent in Hollywood
    • 2008 - 13,000 film made, 1 billion rentals
  37. how sturman expanded his empire
    • auto vending
    • peep shows in grocery stores
    • "doc johnson" sex toys
  38. Charles Keeding
    head of Citizens for Decency league in Cincinatti; pursued Sturman
  39. After Sturman fell, porn industry emerged in...
    S. California
  40. the major paradox of porn:
    publicly we condem and privately we indulge
  41. Comstock Laws (1873)
    • anything obscene could not be sent in mail
    • could have up to 10 years in prison and labor
    • law is still on the books (sometimes enforced, other times not)
    • ex: birth control, sexual devices
  42. Meese Commission
    Does porn degrade women and encourage violence
  43. Obscenity trials must:
    • define the obscenity
    • decide if a crime was committed

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