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If a patient with a DVT develops dyspnea, tachypnea and chest discomfort what should the nurse do first?
Elevate the head of the bed 30-45 degrees to alleviate the symptoms
what are risk factors for pneumonia? 6
upper resp. infection
what lab value is the most important to monitor with aminoglycoside abx?
creatine -- can cause tubular necrosis
why is bed rest important in the acute phase of pneumonia?
decreases the body's need for oxygen, which can be impaired by the infection
early s/s of hypoxia
s/s of TB (6)
purulent sputum, possibly blood streaked
fatigue and lethargy
weight loss and anorexia
low grade fever
what is the purpose of a Mantoux test?
Test for TB (intradermal test)
what are the best methods to prevent infection transmission with a TB patient? 4
Wear respirator when caring for pt
negative airflow room
wear a mask when being transported
pt needs to cough and spit sputum into a tissue and dispose of them into provided sacks
pt teaching for TB (6)
exposed family members need tested
must complete full medication duration for 6-12 motnths
sputum samples needed every 2-4 weeks to test therapy effectiveness
cover moth and nose when coughing or sneezing
dispose of contaminated tissues in plastic bags
wear mask in public places
what two diseases are part of COPD?
emphysema and chronic bronchitis
def of emphysema (2 parts)
loss of lung elasticity and hyperinflation of lung tissue
causes destruction of alveoli --> dec. lung surface area for gas exchange
what are the two most common air gas problems with COPD?
respiratory acidosis (r/t Co2 retention) and compensatory metabolic alkalosis
s/s of COPD (8)
hyperresonance on percussion (trapped air)
use of accessory muscles
clubbing of fingers and toes
pallor and cyanosis
dec. O2 levels
what is the purpose of corticosteroids when used for patients with asthma?
they have an anti-inflammatory effect -- decrease edema in bronchial airways
def of pneumothorax
presence of air or gas in pleural space that causes lung to collapse
which side does tracheal deviation occur in a tension pneumothorax?
towards the unaffected side
(in a tension pneumothorax the air pressure builds up on the side of the valve or opening --> pushes away from affected side)
what is the best position for patient to sit in with a pneumothorax?
high fowlers -- maximizes ventilation
s/s of pneumothorax (4)
sudden sharp chest pain
diminished or absent breath sounds over affected area