Arch 112

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jaz584
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192797
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Arch 112
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2013-01-28 13:53:34
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Archeology 112
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Arch 112 (2013) Pre-midterm 1
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  1. Geocentric View
    -belief from greek and roman time, held over to medieval times that believed that the earth was the center of the universe
  2. Monstrous Races
    • -known as antipodes
    • -lived in the periphery of the world, or on the other side (when world was believed to be flat)
    • -only had deformed outward characteristics, were not compromised morally
  3. James Ussher and John Lightfoot
    • -believed "creation" occurred at 9am Sunday October 23 4004BC
    • -believed in fixity of species and stasis in all forms of nature
  4. Magellan
    • -discovered the world was round and not flat
    • -left questions about where the other people of the world came from
  5. Heliocentric theory
    -copernicus re-introduced concept that sun was center of solar system, not earth center of galaxy (geocentric view)
  6. Catastrophism 
    -belief that natural disasters are responsible for the immense geological/physical changes the earth had undergone in such a short time (creationist theory)
  7. Uniformitarianism 
    • -understanding that most of the earth's features are a result of long term processes(tectonic plates etc)
    • -introduced by Georges Buffon, proved by Charles Lyell (took measurements from niagra falls)
  8. Carolus Linnaeus 
    • -swedish naturalist 
    • -classified humans as part of the ape family in 1758
    • -provided basis for modern taxonomic naming
  9. Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck
    • -believed in use-disuse theory of evolution, animals developed things that they needed and lost things they didn't
    • -coined term biology
  10. Charles Darwin
    • -voyaged on HMS Beagle
    • -published Origin of Species outlining natural selection method of evolution
  11. Alfred Russel Wallace
    • -independently developed same theory as Darwin while working in Southeast asia
    • -lost many specimens in a shipwreck
  12. Natural Selection
    -MECHANISM for evolutionary change that favours survival and reproduction of some organisms over others because of adaptive characteristics 

    • 1-variation in traits
    • 2-differential reproduction
    • 3-inheritance of traits
    • 4-end result, evolution by natural selection
  13. Antidiluvian People 
    -people that existed before the flood from the bible that saved Noah
  14. Christian Jurgensen Thomsen
    • -danish curator who began organizing artifacts into three prehistoric ages
    • -stone, bronze and iron ages
  15. Archeology
    • -branch of anthropology focusing on the human cultural past
    • -the study of material remains
  16. Site
    -a location in which evidence of past human activity is preserved
  17. Artifact
    -any object made or altered by humans
  18. Ecofact
    • -non artifactual item that has cultural relevance eg. organic(animal and plant remains) or inorganic (eg. minerals, stones)
    • -example in class was of rock that looked like a bear that people would have moved from natural occurring area
  19. Feature
    -non portable element of an archeological site that reflects human behaviour eg. hearth, midden(garbage dump) or grave etc
  20. Primary Refuse
    -artifacts of ecofacts left at the place where they were produced or used (an INTACT area)
  21. Secondary Refuse
    -artifacts or ecofacts that were moved by people to a designated refuse area (midden)
  22. Stratigraphy
    • -arrangement of rock and sediment into layers(strata) formed by natural processes and anthropogenic(human caused) activities
    • -depositional unit represents a particular point in time
  23. Shadow Sites
    • -earthworks that cast shadows and are visible only during low light
    • -generally found using ariel surveys
  24. Soil Marks
    • -differences in soil moisture or texture which can reveal buried features (flattened burial mounds or cairns)
    • -revealed in aerial survey
  25. Cropmarks
    • -variations in plant growth and vegetation of an area can reveal buried features (ditches, walls, latrines)
    • -found using ariel surveys
  26. Surface Surveys
    • -most common and least expensive way to find archeological sites
    • -can be unsystematic or systematic 
  27. Subsurface Testing
    -test pits, generally .25-1.0 m

    • -ground penetrating radar
    • -proton magnetometer
    • -electrical resistivity 
  28. Provenience 
    -exact location an item was found in a site
  29. spatial association
    -location of an artifact etc relative to other artifacts etc in the same site
  30. in situ
    -the term which refers to how artifacts are left in the place they are uncovered for documentation
  31. Datum Point
    -reference point for all vertical depth and horizontal documentation
  32. Attribute
    • particular characteristic of an artifact
    • (shape, decorations, raw material etc)
  33. Typology
    -classification of artifact types for a specific context (time period, geographic region)
  34. Ethnoarchaeology 
    -observing living peoples in order to better understand past life ways (flint knapping, observing hunting methods)
  35. Ethnographic analogy
    -studying historical documents describing past cultures and using them to interpret past behaviour (aztec codices)
  36. Zooarchaeology 
    -study of animal remains in order to reconstruct diet etc
  37. MNI & NISP
    • MNI-minimum number of individuals (5 right deer femurs means minimum 5 deer there)
    • NISP-number of individual species
  38. Relative Dating
    • -comparative method,older than this kinda thing. no exact dates
    • -uses law of superposition- for undisturbed stratigraphic layers, more recent ones are superimposed on top of older ones
    • -use seriation-a chronological sequence of changing artifact styles (different generations of iPod's will allow us to figure out which one is older)
  39. Chronometric Dating
    • -methods that provide specific dates in years
    • -radiocarbon dating (C14) half life 5730 years
    • -MUST HAVE organic material
  40. Dendrochronology 
    • -tree ring dating
    • -must develop master sequence for specific area for effectiveness 
    • -used to establish calibration curve for radiocarbon dating
  41. Lewis Binford
    • -starter of processual archaeology (1960's)
    • -believed in strictly deductive as opposed to inductive reasoning
  42. Postprocessual Archaeology 
    • -belief in understanding through emic (from an insiders perspective) 
    • -focused on interpretation of what is found
  43. Agency Theory
    -focus on the individuals within a society rather than society as a whole
  44. Ethics in Archaeology 
    • -stewardship-conservation responsibility
    • -accountability-through public consultation
    • -commercialization-should be discouraged
    • -intellectual property-should not be hoarded
    • -reporting and publication-data should be disseminated 
  45. Biological Anthropology
    • -systematic study of humans as biological organisms
    • -bioarchaeology and paleoanthropology- the study of PAST populations (or hominin species) through the examination of remains (what she does)
  46. Fossil
    -the remains or imprints of a once living organism (squirrel hit by car is technically a fossil, remains of once living thing)
  47. Human Skeleton
    • -roughly 206 bones in adult body
    • -over 300 in infants
    • -1000ish in teens
    • -5 functions-support, protection, movement, mineral storage and blood cell production
  48. Axial skeleton
    • -core of the body
    • -skull(humans is big with a very large vault for our brains), hyoid bone(where your tongue anchors), vertebrae, sacrum and sternum
  49. Appendicular skeleton
    -upper and lower limbs
  50. Upper limbs
    -clavicle, scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, carpals(wrist bones), metacarpals(hand bones), manual phalanges (fingers)
  51. Lower Limbs
    -os coxae(hip bones), femur, patella(knee cap), tibia, fibula, tarsals(foot bones), metatarsals, pedal phalanges
  52. How to identify human bones
    • -cross section of ribs is round
    • -scapulae have greatest width parallel to vertebral column
    • -long bones are very thin
    • -short broad hip bones
    • -(she likes to identify people by pubic bone)
  53. Sex Determination
    (NOT GENDER)
    • -easiest on people past puberty (80%+ effectiveness)
    • -metric(measurable) vs non-metric(morphological, visible) determination
    • -male vs female hip bones is example of sexual dimorphism (male have one characteristic, females a distinctly different one)
    • -men about 8-10% larger
  54. Age Estimation
    • -under 20 years old is easiest to get accurately
    • -dental formation and eruption
    • -bone growth and union
  55. Abiogenesis
    -generation of life from non living matter about 3.6 billion years ago (earth 4.5 billion years old)
  56. Evolution
    • -systematic change through time
    • -NOT directed, has no purpose, mostly random
    • -never stops
  57. Microevolution
    -changes in population allele from one generation to the next (lots of blue eyes in one generation)
  58. macroevolution
    • -long term patterns of genetic change 
    • -includes process of speciation
  59. Species
    • -basic unit of biological classification
    • -must be capable of interbreeding naturally and producing fertile offspring
  60. Breeding population
    -group of organisms exhibiting some degree of genetic isolation from other populations of same species (amish ppl)
  61. Positive assortative mating
    • -individuals of like genotype mate more often than predicted under random conditions
    • -leads to increase of homozygosity 
  62. Negative assortative Mating
    • -mating of individuals with unlike genotype more often than predicted
    • -results in increased heterozygosity
  63. Inbreeding
    • -extreme form of positive assortative mating
    • -results in exaggerated homozygosity (reason pure bred dogs have typical problems in a breed)
  64. Mutation
    • -mechanism of evolution
    • -only way to introduce different genetic information
    • -can be result of DNA replication/translation error OR from outside stimuli(radiation, chemical agents)
    • -generally occurs in 1% of population
    • -back mutation can occur but is extremely rare
  65. Natural Selection
    • -method of evolution
    • -process by which traits become more or less common in a population
    • -over long period of time can completely eliminate a trait from a population
    • -does NOT create more genetic variation
    • -example of domesticated foxes in about 5-6 generations
  66. Gene Flow
    • -mechanism of evolution
    • -migration-genes move from one population to another and are interbred (metis)
  67. Genetic Drift
    • -mechanism of evolution
    • -bottleneck-substantial reduction in population size(plagues etc) that can leave lots of one type of gene to be reproduced 
    • -founder effect-when small area is settled by small number of people can lead to genetic similarities in populations for generations
  68. Speciation
    • -evolutionary formation of new species
    • -allopatric speciation-geographic isolation blocks gene flow
    • -sympatric speciation-results from reproductive isolation in the parents
    • -gradualism-theory that speciation is slow and steady, with cumulative changes
    • -punctuated equilibrium-theory that species tend to remain relatively stable with sudden speciation occurring due to substantial change
  69. anagenesis
    • -transformation of a single unbranched line of organisms to a new species
    • -ex. horse 
    • -the less evolved species do not survive, but are replaced over time
  70. Cladogenesis
    • -budding off of new species from parent species, but the parent species continues on
    • -favours biological diversity
    • -ex. darwin's finches
  71. Analogous vs Homologous traits
    • -analogous(homoplasies)- share the same function, but evolved separately
    • -homologous-share the same evolutionary source
    •  
  72. Animalia
    • -kingdom classification
    • -possess well developed nervous, sensory and movement systems
  73. Mammalian Evolution
    • -300-250 mya appearance of mammal like reptiles
    • -200 mya first true mammals appear (small, mouse like)
    • -70 mya appearance of first placental mammals
    • -65 mya mammals and birds replace reptiles as dominant land vertbrates
  74. Mammalian Traits
    • -characterize ALL and ONLY mammals
    • 1)mammary/sweat glands
    • 2)hair (at least some at the beginning of life cycle)
    • 3)mandible comprised of one bone on each side
    • 4)middle ears containing 3 bones (auditory ossicles)
    • 5)left curvature of the aorta (main artery leaving the heart)
    • 6)a diaphragm 
  75. Mammalian Reproduction
    • -most give birth to live young
    • -placenta- organ that develops inside a pregnant female to provide nutrients and oxygen to the fetus (increases likelihood of fetal survival, but has high energy demands on mother and limits number of offspring)
  76. Mammalian Parental Care 
    • -spend much longer rearing the offspring
    • -produce much fewer offspring as a result
    • -orangutans have a child once every 8 years
  77. Mammalian Temp Regulation
    • -homeothermy- constant body temo
    • -endothermy- internal heat generation
    • -requires high energy input and efficient food processing 
    • -need insulation (hair, fat) against heat loss
    • -require cooling mechanisms (sweat glands, panting, complex lungs)
  78. Mammalian Dentition (teeth)
    • -two sets deciduous(baby) and permanent(adult)
    • -heterodontic-possess more than one type of tooth
    • incisors-cutting, slicing
    • canines-pointed, piercing, tearing
    • molars-grinding, shearing, chewing
  79. Mammalian Locomotion
    • -limbs positioned under body to allow bones to take weight of body
    • -joints operate in sagittal plane (cut straight through your head with one arm and leg on each side of cut)
    • -flexible vertebral column to allow large strides (horse running)
  80. Mammalian Brain
    • -forebrain is enlarged in mammals
    • -rely more on learning
  81. Primate Evolution
    • -65 mya early primates begin to diverge from mammals
    • -small and nocturnal
    • -55 mya first true primates appear, resembling prosimians 
  82. Primate Senses
    • -enlarged eyes, often with sensitivity to low light
    • -complete bony orbits around eyes
    • -orbital convergence(eyes at the front) allows binocular stereoscopic vision (create 3d images)
    • -decreased olfactory senses (reduced snout, loss of naked rhinarium (wet nose for smell))
  83. Primate Hands and Feet
    • -pentadactyly(having five toes/fingers) ancestral trait
    • -prehensile-grasping ability
    • -expanded tactile pads with nails instead of claws
    • -opposable thumbs
  84. Primate Reproduction
    • -generally single offspring
    • -one pair of thoracic mammary glands
    • -long period of infant growth(to learn needed social behaviour and motor skills)
    • -mother infant bond beyond nourishment 
  85. Primate Intelligence 
    • -larger more complex brains than other mammals (larger cerebrum)
    • -large reliance on learning 
    • (washing potatoes story)
  86. Prosimian Primates
    • -closest resemblance to first primates
    • -still have naked rhinarium(wet nose)
    • -large eyed for night use
    • -lorises
    • -lemurs
    • -tarsiers
  87. Lorises
    • -prosimian
    • -small, solitary arboreal(live in trees)
  88. Lemurs
    • -only live on madagascar
    • -nocturnal and diurnal(during the day), arboreal and terrestrial (live in trees and on ground)
  89. Tarsiers
    • -small, arboreal, nocturnal and insectivorous 
    • -vertical clinging and leaping
    • -180 degree rotation of head
  90. Anthropoid Primates
    • -decreased reliance on olfaction (no naked rhinarium, generally reduced snout
    • -increased social complexity 
  91. New World (N&S america) Monkeys
    • -nothing more northern than southern mexico
    • -flat nosed, wide spaced nostrils
    • -arboreal
    • -diurnal(active day and night)
    • -generally smaller
    • -prehensile(grasping) tails
  92. Old world monkeys
    • -africa and asia
    • -narrow noses
    • -diurnal
    • -mostly arboreal(some terrestrial)
    • -NEVER have prehensile tail
    • -generally larger with greater sexual dimorphism 
    • -many species' females develop sexual swelling (estrus) 
  93. Hominoids
    • -africa and asia
    • -generally larger body size
    • -no tail
    • -short, stable trunk
    • -specialized for brachiation(suspensory locomotion)
    • -long forelimbs and fingers, with reduced thumbs
  94. Lesser Apes
    • -gibbons and siamangs
    • -southeast asia
    • -small body size(15-25lbs)
    • -habitual brachiators
    • -permanently curved fingers
    • -powerful shoulders
    • -long arms short legs
  95. Great Apes
    • -chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas and orangutans 
    • -large bodied (75-300lbs)
    • -africa and southeast asia
    • -predominately terrestrial quadrapedalism, arboreal quadrapedalism, brachiation, and occasionally bipedalism
    • -largely vegetarian or omnivorous
    • -oragutans are solitary all others have complex social structure
  96. Anatomy(advantages for) of Bipedalism
    • -forward placed foramen magnum(hole in skull for spinal cord)
    • -S curved vertebral column and narrow rib cage allows central body weight
    • -lumbar lordosis(curving of spine during pregnancy for women which keeps center of gravity)
    • -short broad pelvis allows vertical standing and anchors leg muscles
    • -lengthened lower limbs
    • -angled in femur
    • -powerful hip/thigh muscles (abductors counter act torque when we walk, gluteus maximus stabilizes trunk and extends leg)
    • -locking knee allows efficient gait
    • -large and aligned big toe with arched foot allows efficient energy transfer
  97. Anatomy of Bipedal Running
    • -long legs relative to body size 
    • -large joint surfaces to dissipate impact forces
    • -enlarged gluteus maximus
    • -narrow waist and broad shoulders allow counter rotation of trunk versus hips to maintain balance
    • -head can stay straight while we run
    • -obligate oral breathing
  98. Evolution of Bipedalism
    • -different theories
    • -carrying, vigilance, heat stress, and most likely energy efficiency 
  99. Hominin Language
    • -hemispheric specialization of brain (left side for language and symbol use)
    • -Broca's area-speech production
    • -wernicke's area- language comprehension 
  100. Hominin Brains
    • -increasing brain size since genus homo arose 
    • -allows transmission of culture(learning)
    • -tool use
    • -social complexity 
    • -resource hoarding
    • -meat consumption to feed brain acquired through scavenging, led to evolution of face shape and teeth
  101. Sahelanthropus tchadensis
    • -probable hominin
    • -discovered in Chad
    • -dated to 6-7 mya
    • -had flat face with massive brow ridges, forward position of foramen magnum, smaller canines
    • -showed no increase in brain size ~350cc
  102. Ardipithecus Ramidus
    • -discovered in ethiopia
    • -4.5mya
    • -highly fragmented, MNI of 36+1 more complete
    • -hominin traits:forward foramen magnum, incisiform canines
    • -ancestral traits:terrestrial biped, but arboreal quadraped
  103. Australopithecines 
    • -genus australopithecus (5-6 different species)
    • -2.5-4 mya in africa
    • -bipeds, but lacked efficient gait
    • -small bodied
    • protruding face and small brains ~450cc
  104. Taung Baby
    • -discovered by Raymond Dart in south africa
    • -young ape with small canines and forward foramen magnum
    • -originally dismissed by scholars
  105. Lucy
    • -australopithecus afarensis 
    • -40% complete skeleton of small female hominin
    • -human like from waist down
    • -discovered in ethiopia
    • -Salem was older, but was a child so was referred to as Lucy's baby
  106. Paranthropines 
    • -genus paranthropus (3-4 species)
    • -1-2.8 mya
    • east and southern africa
    • -had massive chewing apparatus
    • -discovered by Robert Broom 1939
    • -large molars, pronounced sagittal crest on top of head, flared cheekbones and massive mandible
  107. Homo Habilis 
    • -first member of Homo genus
    • -1.5-2.5 mya
    • -30% increase in brain size ~650-700cc
    • -smaller teeth, rounder cranium
    • -ancestral traits:small post cranial skeleton, still had long arms for arboreal adaptations
  108. Homo Erectus
    • -1.9mya-53,000 years ago
    • -large cranial capacity, 70% of humans ~950cc
    • -discovered on indonesian island of Java
    • -compared to human skull had protruding face, large brow ridges, large nuchal crest(powerful neck muscles), no chin, football shaped cranium
    • -narrow pelvis suggested immature small brained infants with extensive postnatal brain growth
    • -relatively long legs and adapted to running
    • -more robust than modern humans
    • -quickly spread from africa up into Eurasia 

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