Pediatric reflexes

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Author:
aj4uxoxo
ID:
1928
Filename:
Pediatric reflexes
Updated:
2009-11-30 17:45:34
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Pediatric reflex
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Description:
Most important pediatric reflexes
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  1. Rooting
    • Onset Age: 28 weeks gestation
    • Integration Age: 3 months
    • Stimulus: stroke the corner of the mouth, upper lip and lower lip
    • Response: mvmnt of tongue, mouth and or head toward stimulus
    • Relevance: allows searching for and locating feeding source
  2. Suck-Swallow
    • Onset Age: 28 weeks gestation
    • Integration Age: 2-5 months
    • Stimulus: place finger in infants mouth w head at midline
    • Response: strong rhythmical sucking
    • Relevance: allows ingestion of nourishment
  3. Traction
    • Onset Age: 28 weeks gestation
    • Integration Age: 2-5 months
    • Stimulus: grasp infants forearms and pull to sit
    • Response: complete flexion of upper extrenities
    • Relevance: enhances mementary reflexive grasp
  4. Moro
    • Onset Age: 28 weeks gestation
    • Integration Age: 4-6 months
    • Stimulus: rapidly drop infants head backwards
    • Response: 1) arme extension/ abduction, hand opening 2) arm flexion and adduction
    • Relevance: facilitaties ability to depart from dominant flexor posture; protective response
  5. Plantar grasp
    • Onset Age: 28 weeks gestation
    • Integration Age: 9 months
    • Stimulus: apply pressure with thumb on the infant's ball of foot
    • Response: toe flexion
    • Relevance: increases tactile input to sole of the foot
  6. Galant
    • Onset Age: 32 weeks gestation
    • Integration Age: 2 months
    • Stimulus: hold infant in prone suspension, gently scratch or tap alongside the spine with fringer from shoulders to buttocks
    • Response: lateral trunk flesion and wrinkiling of the skin on the stimulated side
    • Relevance: facilitates lateral trunk movements necessary for trunk stabilization
  7. Asymmetric tonic neck (ATNR)
    • Onset Age: 37 weeks gestation
    • Integration Age: 4-6 months
    • Stimulus: fully rotate infants head and hold for 5 seconds
    • Response: extension of extremities on the face side, flesion of extremities on the skull side
    • Relevance: promotes visual hand regard
  8. Palmer grasp
    • Onset Age: 37 weeks gestation
    • Integration Age: 4-6 months
    • Stimulus: place examiner's finger in infant's palm
    • Response: finger flexion; reflexive grasp
    • Relevance: increases tactile input on the palm of the hand
  9. Tonic labyrinthine supine
    • Onset Age: > 37 wks gestations
    • Integration Age: 6 months
    • Stimulus: place infant in supine
    • Response: increased extensor tone
    • Relevance: Facilitates total body extensor tone
  10. Tonic Laberinthine Prone
    • Onset Age: > 37 wks gestation
    • Integration Age: 6 months
    • Stimulus: place infant in prone
    • Response: increased flexor tone
    • Relevance: facilitaties total body flexor tone
  11. Labyrinthine/ optical (head) righting
    • Onset Age: Birth - 2months
    • Integration Age: perists
    • Stimulus: Hold infant suspended vertically and tilt slowly (about 45 degrees) to the side, forward, or backward
    • Response: Upright positioning of the head
    • Relevance: orients head in space; maintains face vertical
  12. Landau
    • Onset Age: 3-4 months
    • Integration Age: 12-24 months
    • Stimulus: hold infant in horizontal prone suspension
    • Response: complete extension of head, trunk and extremities
    • Relevance: breaks up flexor dominance, facilitates prone extension
  13. Symmetric tonic neck
    • Onset Age: 4-6 months
    • Integration Age: 8-12 months
    • Stimulus: place infant in the crawling position and extend the head
    • Response: flexion of hops and knees
    • Relevance: Breaks up total extensor posture; facilitates static quadruped position
  14. Neck riting (NOB)
    • Onset Age: 4-6 months
    • Integration Age: 5 years
    • Stimulus: place infant in supine and fully trun head to one side
    • Response: log rolling of the entire body to maintain alignment with the head
    • Relevance: Maintains head/ body alignment; initiates folling (first ampulation effort)
  15. Body Righting (on body) (BOB)
    • Onset Age: 4-6 months
    • Integration Age: 5 years
    • Stimulus: Place infant in supine, Fles one hip and knee toward the chest and hold briefly
    • Response: Segmental folling of the upper trunk to maintain alignment
    • Relevance: facilitates trunk/ spinal rotation
  16. Downward parachute (protective extension downward)
    • Onset Age: 4 months
    • Integration Age: persists
    • Stimulus: Rapidtly lower infant toward supporting surface while suspended vertically
    • Response: extension of the lower extremities
    • Relevance: allows accurate placement of lower extremities in anticipation of a surface
  17. Forward Parachute (protective extension forward)
    • Onset Age: 6-9 months
    • Integration Age: persists
    • Stimulus: suddenly tip infant forward toward suporting surface while vertically suspended
    • Response: sudden extension of the upper extremities, hand opening, and neck extension
    • Relevance: Allows accurate placement of upper extremities in anticipation of supporting surface to prevent a fall
  18. Sideward parachute (protective extension sideward)
    • Onset Age: 7 months
    • Integration Age: persists
    • Stimulus: quickly but firmly tip infant off balance to the side while in the sitting position
    • Response: arm extension and abduction to the side
    • Relevance: protects body to prevent a fall; unilaterally facilitates spinal rotation
  19. Backward Parachute (Protective extension backward)
    • Onset Age: 9-10 months
    • Integration Age: persists
    • Stimulus: Quickly but firmly tip infant of ablance back ward
    • Response: backward arm extension or arm extension to one side
    • Relevance: Protects body to prevent a fall; unilaterally facilitates spinal rotation
  20. Prone Tilting
    • Onset Age: 5 months
    • Integration Age: Persists
    • Stimulus: After positioning infant in prone, slowly raise one side of the supporting surface
    • Response: curving of spine toward the raised side (opposite the pull of gravity) abduction/extension of arms and legs
    • Relevance: Maintain equilibrium without arm support; facilitate postural adjustments in all positions
  21. Supine Tilting
    • Onset Age: 7-8 months
    • Integration Age: Persists
    • Stimulus: After positioning infant in supine or sitting, slowly raise one side of the supporting surface
    • Response: curving of spine toward the raised side (opposite the pull of gravity) abduction/extension of arms and legs
    • Relevance: Maintain equilibrium without arm support; facilitate postural adjustments in all positions
  22. Quadruped Tilting
    • Onset Age: 9-12 months
    • Integration Age: Persists
    • Stimulus: After positioning infant on all fours, slowly raise one side of the supporting surface
    • Response: curving of spine toward the raised side (opposite the pull of gravity) abduction/extension of arms and legs
    • Relevance: Maintain equilibrium without arm support; facilitate postural adjustments in all positions
  23. Standing tilting
    • Onset Age: 12-21 months
    • Integration Age: Persists
    • Stimulus: After positioning infant in standing, slowly raise one side of the supporting surface
    • Response: curving of spine toward the raised side (opposite the pull of gravity) abduction/extension of arms and legs
    • Relevance: Maintain equilibrium without arm support; facilitate postural adjustments in all positions
  24. Reemergence or presistance of primitive reflexes
    indicative of CNS dysfunction
  25. Reflex
    predictable motor response elicited by tactile, propreoceptive or vestibular stimulation

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