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What is the absolute refractory period?
Early phase of the cardiac repolarization where the heart muscle cannot be stimulated to depolarize.
What is ACS?
Any group of clinical symptoms consistent with acute MI.
What is acute MI?
Period of cardiac ischemia caused by sudden narrowing or complete occlusion of coronary artery leads to death (necrosis) of myocardial tissue.
What is afterload?
Resistance against which the ventricle contracts.
What is an aneurysm?
Sac or bulge resulting from weakening of the wall of a blood vessel or ventricle.
What is angina pectoris?
Sudden pain from myocardia ischemia, caused by diminished blood flow to the cardiac muscle. Pain is substernal and can radiate to the arms, jaw, or abdomen and usually lasts 3-5 minutes and disappears with rest.
What is Beck's triad?
- Symptoms for cardiac tamponade -
- Narrowed pulse pressure
- Muffled heart tones
What is cardiac tamponade?
Restriction of the cardiac contraction, failing cardiac output, and shock, caused by the accumulation of fluid or blood in the pericardium.
What is chronotropic, dromotropic, and inotropic effects?
Chronotropic - rate of contraction
Dromotropic - velocity of conduction
Inotropic - contractility of muscle tissue
What is endocardium and epicardium?
Endo - thin membrane inside the heart
Epi - thin membrane outside the heart
What is Frank-Starling mechanism?
Characteristic of heart muscle that enables it, when stretched, to contract with greater force. The more it's stretched, the more force of contraction, the more completely it empties, and the greater the stroke volume.
What is percutaneous coronary intervention?
PCI us a therapy in which balloons, stints, or other devices are passed through a catheter to recanalize and keep a blocked coronary artery open.