Erosion Test

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Erosion Test
2013-01-14 16:40:10
5th grade science

test review
Show Answers:

  1. What is the process of the breaking down of rocks into smaller pieces?
  2. What is the mechanical breakdown of rock?
    Physical weathering
  3. What are four causes of physical weathering?
    • temperature
    • water
    • vegetation
    • wind
  4. What is it called when oxygen in the air reacts with certain deposits in rocks and minerals, weakening, and causing them to crumble?
  5. What is rain that has come in contact with contaminants such as industrial exhausts and becomes acidic?
    acid rain
  6. the process by which weathered materials are carried away
  7. when something curves or bends in a streambed formed by slow moving water on gently sloping land
  8. a broad, flat area surrounding a streambed that is close enough in elevation to the streambed so that occasional flooding occurs
  9. soil, sand, rock , and anything else suspended in the water
  10. What is formed when a stream reaheds its base level?
    a delta
  11. the level at which the stream enters a lake or ocean
    base level
  12. similar to a delta, but is formed upstream when deep, fast-moving waters enter a shallow, wide area and deposits its sediment in the streambed
    alluvial fan
  13. the process in which particles settle to the bottom of a liquid
  14. a small bit of material
  15. water that neither gets absorbed by the earth nor evaporates
  16. periodic changes in the surface level of the oceans - caused by the moon's gravitional pull
  17. artificial barriers constructed along the shoreline to absorb or deflect energy of the breaking waves, therefore reducing the amount of the erosion
  18. an earth material that allows water to pass through it is...
  19. an earth material that has all its air pockets/space filled with water is....
  20. Where do waves get their energy?
    From the wind blowing across the surface of the water
  21. What factors affect the size and strength of waves?
    • speed of the wind
    • direction of the wind
    • hi or low tide
  22. How does temperature affect rocks and minerals?
    Give examples
    • Extreme changes in daytime and nighttime temperatures can cause rocks to crack
    • example:  a rock in the Sahara desert
  23. How does water weather rocks and minerals?
    Give examples
    • Water seeps into rocks' cracks, freezes, expands, causing the crack to get bigger and eventually break into smaller pieces
    • Example:  a waterfall
  24. How does vegetation weather rocks and minerals?
    Give examples
    • Roots of plants can grow in the cracks of rocks
    • Example:  moss, lichens growing on a rock
  25. How does wind weather rocks and minerals?
    Give examples
    The force of the wind pushes against the rock, and sand and soil blown onto the rock wears it away
  26. Which settled slowest to fastest?
    (gravel, soil, sand)
    • Gravel - slowest
    • Sand - middle
    • Clay soil - fastest
  27. Why did each material settle at its speed?
    The heavier the substance, the faster it deposits