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- - study of earths landscapes, peoples, places and environments.
- - to describe or write about the earth”. The earth is not static, it evolves through time and space...
Defining modern Geography
- - geographers study the spatial and temporal distribution of phenomena, processesand features as well as the interaction of humans and their environment.
- - humangeography and physical geography.
How is Geography a continuum?
In some places meet, some places they are completely different
Physical <---> human/cultural
- -reality is best described through scientific methods and through quantitative,numerical approaches
- - view of nature as separate from human world
- - Data/factsare presented without attention to context
- - reality is informed (constructed/enacted) by the ways in which we interpret and representit; view of natural and human worlds as interacting and co-evolving (and technology)
- - seesobserver and observed as independent - interaction, you see the world through your assumptions. Any representation is not neutral
In a word Geography is a Science—a thing not ofmere names but of argument and reason, of cause and effect.”— William Hughes
Human Geography -- Writing the Earth --
- - Human/Nature relations
- - interactions between enviroment and humans impact on each other
Human Geography -- Writing the World --
- - society/space realatioins: how and where we are located
- - embodiment
- - social structures.
3 Core concepts
- - Space
- - Place
- - Enviroment
Core - - Space - -
- - Physical dimentions: the location on the surface, cartography,
- - Social/cultural dimensions: spatiality, emphasizes the meaning of of space, rather than physical demensions
Core - - Place - -
- - Boundaries or limits that define a recognized territory,
- - not independent of space
- - sense of home, identity and belonging
core - - Enviroment - -
- - Humans are part of the natural enviroment; causes us to rethink the division between natural and human worlds
- - the processes that act upon earth (physical and human)
Development of Geography phase 1
- Exploration of the world
- - discovery, mapping and inventory-taking
- - to mid 19th century
Development of Geography Phase 2
- Establishment of the discipline
- - bridging nature and society; early theories of enviromentalism
- late 19th century
Development of Geography Phase 3
Dominace of regional geography
- detailed area description, classifation and explanation fo regions
early 20th century
Development of Geography Phase 4
- Emergence of physical and human geography
- - development of systematic geographies; questioning the scientific basis of geography
mid 20th century
Development of Geography Phase 5
- - physical - intergrated - human- Geography
- - strongly divergent interest and specilization within
late 20th century onwards