Heme-Onc Path

The flashcards below were created by user ssbhat on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. What are the 5 compensatory mechanisms in anemia?
    • Increased RBC production
    • Increased 2,3 DPG
    • Shunting of blood from non-vital areas to vital areas
    • Increased cardiac output
    • Increased pulmonary fxn
  2. What are the signs and symptoms of anemia?
    • Weakness, malaise, easy fatigability
    • Marrow expansion with potential bony abnormalities
    • Pallor
    • Tachycardia, cardiac ischemia
    • Dyspnea on exertion
  3. What are the 3 components of the functional classification of anemia?
    • Blood Loss
    • Decreased Production
    • Accelerated Destruction
  4. Image Upload
    • Spherocytes:
    • hereditary spherocytosis
    • autoimmune hemolytic anemia
  5. Image Upload
    • Target cells:
    • Liver dz, splenectomy, hemoglobinopathies
  6. Image Upload
    • Elliptocytes (ovalocytes):
    • Hereditary elliptocytosis, megaloblastic anemia, iron deficiency, myelofibrosis
  7. Image Upload
    • Teardrop cells:
    • Megaloblastic anemia, myelofibrosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis
  8. Image Upload
    • Sickled cells:
    • Sickle cell disease
  9. Image Upload
    • Fragments (schistocytes):
    • TTP, DIC, malignant hypertension
  10. Image Upload
    • Bite Cells:
    • Oxidant hemolysis (G6PD deficiency)
  11. Image Upload
    Anisocytosis: red cell size variability
  12. Image Upload
    Polychromasia (reticulocytes)
  13. Image Upload
    • Howell-Jolly Bodies (nuclear fragments):
    • Splenectomy, megaloblastic anemia
  14. Image Upload
    • Pappenheimer bodies (iron granules):
    • splenectomy, iron overload
  15. Image Upload
    • Basophilic stippling:
    • Thalassemias, myelodysplastic syndrome, lead poisoning
  16. Image Upload
    Hemoglobin C crystals: Hb CC disease, Hb SC disease
  17. Image Upload
    Rouleaux: decreased repulsive forces btwn RBCs (increased serum proteins - Ig, fibrinogen)
  18. Image Upload
    Agglutination: IgM RBC antibodies (cold agglutinins)
  19. Initially no anemia by CBC parameters despite decreased in blood volume.

    Anemia develops as tissue fluid enters vascular space to restore blood volume, producing dilution of cellular elements.

    Reticulocyte count increases after 2-3 days and peaks after 7-10 days
    Acute anemia of blood loss
  20. No anemia initially b/c BM is able to compensate.

    Slight reticulocytosis.

    Eventual development of iron deficiency.
    Chronic anemia of blood loss.
  21. Where are RBCs produced in different stages of life?
    Embryo: Yolk Sac

    Fetus: Liver

    After birth: BM
  22. What regulates RBC production?
    Decreased oxygen delivery induces the production of erythropoietin by kidney.

    EPO causes proliferation and differentiation of committed progenitor cells.
  23. Why do reticulocytes have a blue tinge on blood smears?
    They contain residual RNA 
  24. How long do reticulocytes circulate and what percent of peripheral erythrocytes are reticulocytes?
    Circulate 1 day before losing residual ribosomes, mitochondria, and other organelles to become mature erythrocytes.

    Normally 1 percept of peripheral erythrocytes.
Card Set:
Heme-Onc Path
2013-01-15 00:20:34
Heme Onc

Block 5 Pathology
Show Answers: