Biology 102

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  1. Swaying of leaf insect is an example of what adaptation?
    Behavioral adaptation
  2. A beak on a bird and spikes on various seeds are examples of what adaptation?
    Structural adaptation
  3. Toxic neutralization is an example of what type of adaptation?
    Biochemical adaptation
  4. What are the four adaptations?
    • 1. Behavioral
    • 2. Structural
    • 3. Biochemical
    • 4. Physiological
  5. Increases survivability and reproduction
  6. Who traveled to the Galapagos Islands to observe similarities between living and fossil organisms and the diversity of life?
    Charles Darwin
  7. Darwin's main ideas can be traced back to who?
    Ancient Greeks
  8. Suggested animals arose from the sea
  9. Believed that species are fixed
    Aristotle and Judeo-Christian Culture
  10. Geologist that proposed Earth is changed by gradual processes
    Charles Lyell
  11. Darwin proposed ______ as the mechanism of evolution
    Natural Selection
  12. the differential survival and reproduction of individuals within a population
    Natural Selection
  13. What is the name of the book Darwin published in 1859?
    On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
  14. Natural Selection

    Chance or Controlled?
  15. Artificial Selection

    Chance or Controlled?
  16. The selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals is an example of...?
    Artificial Selection
  17. Darwin proposed that _____ is the mechanism of evolution?
    Natural Selection
  18. Oldest known fossils
    Prokaryote cells
  19. Oldest eukaryote cells are a billion years ______ than prokaryote.
  20. More recent fossils 
  21. Prokaryotes: single or multi-celled?
    single celled
  22. Eukaryotes: single or multi-celled?
  23. Who evolves: individuals or populations?
  24. The geographic distribution of species
  25. the comparison of body structures in different species 
    Comparative Anatomy
  26. Similarity in characteristics that result from common ancestry
  27. Features that often have different functions but are structurally similar because of common ancestry
    Homologous Structures
  28. Comparison of early stages of development among different organisms
    Comparative Embryology
  29. Different forms of phenotypic characteristics
  30. Direction of selection changes as the ______ changes
  31. Variation of an inherited characteristic along a geographic continuum 
    Geographic Variation
  32. Two things that generate variation
    Mutation and Sexual Recombination
  33. Reproduce asexual and sexual
  34. Sexual reproduction only
    Genetic Recombination
  35. Changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
    Can create new alleles
  36. Generates variation by shuffling alleles during meiosis 
    Sexual Recombination
  37. 3 domains of life
    • 1. Bacteria
    • 2. Archaea
    • 3. Eukarya
  38. Causes of evolutionary change
    • 1. Gene flow
    • 2. Natural selection
    • 3. Genetic drift
  39. Genes change due to individuals moving places
    Gene flow
  40. Driven by adaptations
    Natural Selection
  41. Changes in genes; random- chance
    Genetic Drift
  42. Bottleneck effect and Founders effect
    Genetic drift
  43. Comparisons of DNA and amino acid sequences between different organisms reveal evolutionary relationships
    Molecular Biology
  44. First to represent history of life as a tree
  45. Can be used to determine the branching sequence of an evolutionary tree
    Homologous structures and Genes
  46. Group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time
  47. A group of populations who species can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
  48. Change in heritable traits in a population over generations
  49. Studies how populations change genetically over time
    Population Genetics 
  50. Connects Darwin's theory with population genetics 
    Modern Synthesis
  51. Total collection of all genes in a population at any one time 
    Gene Pool
  52. Change in the relative frequencies of alleles in a gene pool
  53. May reduce the capacity of endangered species to survive as humans continue to alter the enviroment
    Low Genetic Variability
  54. Three ways natural selection can alter variation in a population
    • 1. Stabilizing Selection
    • 2. Directional Selection
    • 3. Disruptive Selection
  55. Favors intermediate Phenotypes
    Stabilizing Selection
  56. Acts against individuals at one of the phenotypic extremes
    Directional Selection
  57. Favors individuals at both extremes of the phenotypic range
    Disruptive Selection
  58. The distinction in appearance between males and females of a species 
    Sexual Dimorphism
  59. The determining of "who mates with whom"
    Leads to the evolution of secondary sexual characteristics that may give individuals an advantage in mating
    Sexual Selection
  60. Lab strains established in the 1930s have what percentage of alleles for DDT Resistance
  61. Lab strains established in the 1960s have what percentage of alleles for DDT Resistance
  62. Maintains stable frequencies of two or more phenotypes in a population
    Balancing Selection
  63. Heterozygotes have greater reproduction success than homozygous
    Heterozygote Advantage
  64. Two different phenotypes are maintained in a population
    Frequency-Dependent Selection
Card Set:
Biology 102
2013-01-14 23:59:47
Chapter 13

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