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Swaying of leaf insect is an example of what adaptation?
A beak on a bird and spikes on various seeds are examples of what adaptation?
Toxic neutralization is an example of what type of adaptation?
What are the four adaptations?
Increases survivability and reproduction
traveled to the Galapagos Islands to observe similarities between living and fossil organisms and the diversity of life?
Darwin's main ideas can be traced back to who?
Suggested animals arose from the sea
Believed that species are fixed
Aristotle and Judeo-Christian Culture
Geologist that proposed Earth is changed by gradual processes
Darwin proposed ______ as the mechanism of evolution
the differential survival and reproduction of individuals within a population
What is the name of the book Darwin published in 1859?
On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
Chance or Controlled?
Chance or Controlled?
The selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals is an example of...?
Darwin proposed that _____ is the mechanism of evolution?
Oldest known fossils
Oldest eukaryote cells are a billion years ______ than prokaryote.
More recent fossils
Prokaryotes: single or multi-celled?
Eukaryotes: single or multi-celled?
Who evolves: individuals or populations?
The geographic distribution of species
the comparison of body structures in different species
Similarity in characteristics that result from common ancestry
Features that often have different functions but are structurally similar because of common ancestry
Comparison of early stages of development among different organisms
Different forms of phenotypic characteristics
Direction of selection changes as the ______ changes
Variation of an inherited characteristic along a geographic continuum
Two things that generate variation
Mutation and Sexual Recombination
Reproduce asexual and sexual
Changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
Can create new alleles
Generates variation by shuffling alleles during meiosis
3 domains of life
Causes of evolutionary change
1. Gene flow
2. Natural selection
3. Genetic drift
Genes change due to individuals moving places
Driven by adaptations
Changes in genes; random- chance
Bottleneck effect and Founders effect
Comparisons of DNA and amino acid sequences between different organisms reveal evolutionary relationships
First to represent history of life as a tree
Can be used to determine the branching sequence of an evolutionary tree
Homologous structures and Genes
Group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time
A group of populations who species can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
traits in a population over generations
Studies how populations change genetically over time
Connects Darwin's theory with population genetics
Total collection of all genes in a population at any one time
Change in the relative frequencies of alleles in a gene pool
May reduce the capacity of endangered species to survive as humans continue to alter the enviroment
Low Genetic Variability
Three ways natural selection can alter variation in a population
1. Stabilizing Selection
2. Directional Selection
3. Disruptive Selection
Favors intermediate Phenotypes
Acts against individuals at one of the phenotypic extremes
Favors individuals at both extremes of the phenotypic range
The distinction in appearance between males and females of a species
The determining of "who mates with whom"
Leads to the evolution of secondary sexual characteristics that may give individuals an advantage in mating
Lab strains established in the 1930s have what percentage of alleles for DDT Resistance
Lab strains established in the 1960s have what percentage of alleles for DDT Resistance
Maintains stable frequencies of two or more phenotypes in a population
Heterozygotes have greater reproduction success than homozygous
Two different phenotypes are maintained in a population