Eye Pharm Drugs

Card Set Information

Eye Pharm Drugs
2013-01-14 19:10:13
SBU Eye Preparations Pharm

Eye Pharm Drugs
Show Answers:

  1. sulfacetamide sodium (Bleph 10)
    • Bacterial Conj
    • AE: allergic rxns
  2. Tobramycin Sulfate (Tobrex)
    • Bacterial Conjunctivitis
    • Classic Option
    • 5-6 times daily
  3. Ofloxacin (Oculoflox)
    • Bacterial Conjunctivitis
    • Broad spectrum
  4. Ciprofloxacin (Ciloxan)
    • Bacterial Conjunctivitis
    • Broad spectrum
  5. Polymyxin B
    • Bacterial Conjunctivitis
    • Use in conjunction with neomycin or bacitracin
    • AE: allergic reactions due to neomycin
  6. Azithromycin Ophthalmic Solution
    • Bacterial Conjunctivitis
    • commonly used
    • 1 drop in the affected eye TWICE daily
    • Expensive
  7. Topical Fortified tobramycin 
    (alternated with topically fortified cefazolin)
    • Bacterial Keratinitis
    • Better result for Bact. Keratitis if you obtain culture and sensitivity
  8. Trifluridine 1% solution (Viroptic)
    • Herpes Simplex of the EYE
    • 8-9 times daily
  9. Vidarabine 3% ointment
    • Herpes Simplex Keratitis (Eye)
    • 5 times daily
  10. Acyclovir 
    • antiviral given if herpes zoster is suspected
    • refer to optho within 24 hours
  11. Phenylephrine
    • alpha 1 agonist
    • dilator--> mydriasis 
    • No cycloplegic effects
    • onset 30 mins
    • 2-3 hr duration
    • innervated by the sympathetic nervous system
  12. Pilocarpine
    • contraction of ciliary muscle
    • mediated by PNS
  13. Prostaglandin F2alpha Analogs
    • used in glaucoma
    • first line agents

    MOA: reduce IOP up to 25% by increasing uveoscleral outflow

    • Specific Drugs (all drops): Lantaoprost (Xalaton)
    • Travoprost (Travaton)
    • Brimatoprost (Lumigan)** eye lash growth
    • Unoprosterone (rescula)
  14. Beta Blockers for the EYE
    • Treatment of Glaucoma
    • MOA: decrease production of Aqueous Humor (via B2 blockade)

    Nonselective: Timolol, carteolol, metipranolo, levobunolol

    Selective: Betaxolol- B1 only, less effective

    • AE: Local: stinging eyes, blepharitis, conj, uveitis
    • Systemic: cardiac and bronchospasm
  15. Alpha 2 Agonist
    • treatment of Glaucoma
    • MOA: reduce IOP by decreasing rate of AH production

    • Drugs: Brimonidine Alphagan (selective, 1st line)
    • Apraclonidine (Iopidine) - 2nd line

    • AE: local- lid edema*, eye discomfort and itching
    • Systemic: dizziness, dry mouth, increased blood pressure
  16. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors (CAI)
    • treatment of glaucoma
    • MOA: decrease AH secretion from ciliary body

    AE Local Effects: stinging, blurred vision, redness

    • Systemic CAIs are available for those who dont respond to topical therapy:
    • - Acetazolamide 
    • Methazolamide
  17. Cycloplegics
    • PNS- anti muscarinics
    • Block mitosis and block ciliary muscle spasm

    • Atropine- not used for procedures, used for children with lazy eye (lasts up to 2 weeks) 
    • Scopolamine- used for motion sickness
    • Homatropine- short lastings 2-3 hr
    • Cyclopentolate- eye injury
    • Tropicamide- most commonly used for optho procedures

    AE: anticholinergic effects are more common in young
  18. Topical Anesthetics
    used for minor surgery, removal of forgeign bodies

    Proparcaine (onset 15s, duration 15 min) most common

    Tetracaine (onset 1m, duration 15-20 m)

    Benoxinate HCL (onset 1-2 min, duration 10-15) used to check corneal abrasions with fluorescein
  19. Topical Eye Corticosteroids (general info)
    used for uveitis, allergic conj, keratitis

    variable potencies

    AE: decrease healing in eye, decrease immune defense 
  20. Low Potency Topical Eye Corticosteroids
    Alrex (loteprednol etabonate) - seasonal allergic conj

    • Pred Mild (prednisolone)
    • Vexol (rimexolone)
    • - both are used for post op inflammation and anterior uveitis
  21. High Potency Topical Eye Corticosteroids
    Pred Forte- ocular inflammation

    Inflamase Forte (prednisolone sodium phosphate)-ocular inflammation

    Fluoromethalone (FML)- ocular inflammation

    Lotemax (loteprdnol)- ocular inflammation and post op
  22. Topical Anti-allergic Eye Meds
    • Pantanol (olapadine)
    • -antihistamine (most common)
    • - mast cell stabilizer
    • -first line for allergic conjunct.

    • Levocabastine HCL (livostin)
    • -Histamine 1 antagonist for acute relief

    • Lodoxamide (Alomide) and Cromolyn Na
    • -mast cell stabilizers
    • -take a few weeks to work

    • Acular (ketorolac)
    • -NSAID
  23. Epinephrine and Dipiverin
    • MOA: B2 agonism increase in AH outflow
    • Less effects on IOP overall and may be useful to add on to other first line therapies