Biomedical Core

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Author:
faulkner116
ID:
192842
Filename:
Biomedical Core
Updated:
2013-01-14 19:41:07
Tags:
Module11
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Description:
Objective 26-32
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  1. Events that make the inside of the neuron more positively charged result in
    an EPSP
  2. Events that make the inside of the neuron more negatively charged result in
    an IPSP
  3. Channel Opening or Closing Generates IPSPs and EPSPs:

    Give action & result for the ion

    Na+
    Action: Open               Result: EPSP

    Action: Close               Result: IPSP
  4. Channel Opening or Closing Generates IPSPs and EPSPs:

    Give action & result for the ion

    K+
    Action: Open             Result: IPSP

    Action: Close             Result: EPSP
  5. Channel Opening or Closing Generates IPSPs and EPSPs:

    Give action & result for the ion

    Cl-
    Action: Open             Result: IPSP

    Action: Close             Result: EPSP
  6. Graded Potentials vs Action Potential

    Give Graded Potentials
    -Mostly in dendrites & cell body

    -Ligand-gated & Mechanically-gated channels

    -Decrement in space & time

    -Long duration (several msec to several min)

    -Hyperpolarizing (IPSP); Depolarizing (EPSP)

    -No refractory period moves in all directions summation
  7. Graded Potential vs Action Potential

    Give Action Potential
    -Mostly in axons

    -Voltage-gated channels

    -All-or-none

    -About 1 msec

    -Always same curve

    -Refractory period moves in one direction no summation
  8. What are the neurotransmitter group categories
    Unmodified amino acids

    Modified amino acids

    Polypeptides

    Purines

    Fatty acids

    Gases
  9. What are the Neurotransmitters that are unmodified amino acids? 3 of them
    Glutamate

    Glycine

    Aspartate
  10. What are the Neurotransmitters that are modified amino acids? 6 of them
    Acetylcholine

    GABA

    Norepinephrine

    Epinephrine

    Dopamine

    Serotonin
  11. What are the Neurotransmitters that are polypeptides? 8 listed called (Neuropeptides)
    Substance P

    Enkephalins

    Endorphins

    Dynorphins

    Hypothalamic Releasing Hormones

    Hypothalamic Inhibiting Hormones

    Angiotensin II

    Cholecystokinin (CCK)
  12. What are the Neurotransmitters that are purines? only 1
    ATP
  13. What are the Neurotransmitters that are gases? 
    NO
  14. Glutamate is the major _________ neurotransmitter of the brain.
    excitatory
  15. GABA is the major _________ neurotransmitter of the brain.
    inhibitory
  16. What are the 4 Biogenic Amine Neurotransmitters?
    • Norepinephrine
    • Epinephrine
    • Dopamine
    • Serotonin
  17. What is the typical function and location of Norepinephrine?
    Function: Increase blood pressure

    Location: blood vessel; smooth muscle
  18. What is the typical function and location of Epinephrine?
    Function: fight-or-flight response

    Location: Widespread
  19. What is the typical function and location of Dopamine?
    Function: Smoothing movement

    Location: basal ganglia
  20. What is the typical function and location of Serotonin?
    Function: Regulating mood

    Location: Widespread areas of the brain
  21. Whatever happens to the postsynaptic cell depends on the receptor, not on the transmitter itself. So, strictly speaking, there are no "inhibitory neurotransmitters" or "excitatory neurotransmitters" only
    inhibitory or excitatory receptors
  22. Receptors which open or close ion channels, because they affect the ionic environment of the neuron, are called
    Ionotropic
  23. Receptors which change the biochemistry of a neuron, because they affect the metabolism of neurons, are called
    Metabotropic
  24. There are at least 3 categories of metabotropic receptor. Name them
    G protein receptors

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP)

    Tyrosine Kinase-Linked Receptor
  25. A large category of metabotropic receptors are called
    G protein receptors
  26. The cAMP, in turn, kicks off a cascade of chemical reactions that eventually result in the phosphorylation of
    proteins (a phosphate group is added). Again, when a phosphate group is added to proteins, their shape changes; when their shape changes, then their activity changes.
  27. Most metabotropic receptors are
    protein kinases
  28. Metabotropic receptors cause a long-term biochemical change in the postsynaptic cell,
    A wide variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and other factors activate these metabotropic receptors
  29. The nervous system and the endocrine system "blend together", sharing the same neurotransmitters/hormones, receptors, and signaling pathways. The difference is in the
    distance that information travels
  30. There are at least 3 types of signaling. What are they?
    Endocrine Signaling

    Paracrine Signaling

    Autocrine Signaling
  31. Endocrine Signaling
    where a hormone is released to act on receptors on a distant organ.
  32. Paracrine Signaling
    where a chemical signal travels a short distance to neighboring cells in the same organ.
  33. Autocrine Signaling
    where a chemical signal acts on receptors on the same cell that released the chemical signal. Usually, this acts to turn the signal off.

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