anatomy final- ch. 5

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anatomy final- ch. 5
2013-01-14 20:12:33

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  1. 4 steps of bone repair
    • hematoma forms (blood filled swelling) vessels rupture at site of fracture
    • cartilage callus forms in place of hematoma; temporary splint
    • osteoblasts begin to divide to replace the fibrocartilage callus with bony callus
    • bony callus is remodeled to form a strong permanent patch, heals with extra layer of bone
  2. fibrous joints
    • bones united by fibrous tissue, thin layer of connective tissue
    • ex. sutures, teeth in sockets; sydesmoses (allows more movement than sutures)
  3. cartilaginous joints
    • bones connected by cartilage and ligaments
    • called a symphysis, allows limited movement
    • ex. pubic symphysis, intervertebral joints, cartilage between sacrum and hip bone
  4. synarthroses
    • immovable joints, sutures
    • bones are close
    • thin layer of fibrous connective tissue between bones
  5. amphiarthroses
    • slightly moveable joints
    • bones are connected by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage
    • ribs connected to sternum by costal cartilage
  6. diarthroses
    • synovial joints, appendicular skeleton
    • freely moveable joints
  7. articular cartilage (hyaline)
    • covers ends of opposing bones
    • separated by space called joint cavity
    • reduces friction
  8. fibrous articular capsule
    sleeve at the joint serface lined with a synovial membrane
  9. joint cavity
    contains synovial fluid
  10. reinforcing ligament
    • both reduce friction between bones
    • -bursae: flattened fibrous sacs, contain synovial fluid
    • -tendon sheath: elognated bursa, wrapped around a tendon
  11. plane joint
    • flat surface
    • joint bones slide past each other
    • nonaxial
    • ex. intercarpal joints of the wrist
  12. hinge joint
    • cylindrical end of one bone fits into a trough shaped surface on another
    • angular movement in one plane
    • uniaxial
    • ex. elbow, knee, phalanges
  13. pivot joint
    • rounded end of one bone fits into a sleeve or ring of bone
    • one bone spins or rotates around another
    • uniaxial
    • ex. radioulnar joint (elbow), first 2 vertebrae in neck
  14. condyloid joint
    • knuckle like
    • egg shaped end fits into oval concavity in another
    • move in many directions; cannot rotate
    • biaxial
    • ex. metacarpolphalangeal joints
  15. saddle joint
    • convex and concave
    • allows movement back and forth, up and down
    • biaxial
    • ex. carpometacarpal joints in thumb
  16. ball and socket joint
    • spherical head of one bone fits into round socket
    • multiaxial joints
    • allows movement in all axes; includes rotation
    • ex. shoulder and hip
  17. ligaments which stabilize the joint
    • ACL
    • -major stabilizing ligament of knee
    • -prevent buckling type of instability
    • -tearing occurs with sudden direction change
  18. bursitis
    • inflamation of bursa or synovial membrane
    • caused by blow or friction
  19. sprain
    • ligaments or tendons damaged by excessive stretching or torn away from bone
    • heals very slowly
    • poorly vascularized
    • cartilage is avascular
  20. tendonitis
    inflammation of tendon sheath
  21. dislocation
    • bone is forced out of normal position
    • reduction is to put bone back into normal position
  22. osteoarthritis
    • most common chronic arthritis
    • wear and tear, normal aging
    • bone thickens and bone spurs grow; restricts movement
    • common in spine, knees, hips, fingers
    • slow and irreversible
  23. rheumatoid arthritis
    • autoimmune disease
    • cause: unknown
    • ages of 40-50
    • scar tissue forms as cartilage is destroyed and ossifies
    • causes deformities
    • controlled with steroids, physical therapy, drugs
  24. gouty arthritis
    • inflammation of joints caused by deposition of urate crystals from the blood
    • genetic
    • more common in males
    • bone ends fuse and become immobile
    • can be controlled with diet